piggyBacis an effective tool for functional analysis of thePlasmodium falciparumgenome
© Balu et al. 2009
Received: 30 October 2008
Accepted: 07 May 2009
Published: 07 May 2009
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© Balu et al. 2009
Received: 30 October 2008
Accepted: 07 May 2009
Published: 07 May 2009
Much of thePlasmodium falciparumgenome encodes hypothetical proteins with limited homology to other organisms. A lack of robust tools for genetic manipulation of the parasite limits functional analysis of these hypothetical proteins and other aspects of thePlasmodiumgenome. Transposon mutagenesis has been used widely to identify gene functions in many organisms and would be extremely valuable for functional analysis of thePlasmodiumgenome.
In this study, we investigated the lepidopteran transposon,piggyBac, as a molecular genetic tool for functional characterization of thePlasmodium falciparumgenome. Through multiple transfections, we generated 177 uniqueP. falciparummutant clones with mostly singlepiggyBacinsertions in their genomes. Analysis ofpiggyBacinsertion sites revealed random insertions into theP. falciparumgenome, in regards to gene expression in parasite life cycle stages and functional categories. We further explored the possibility of forward genetic studies inP. falciparumwith a phenotypic screen for attenuated growth, which identified several parasite genes and pathways critical for intra-erythrocytic development.
Our results clearly demonstrate thatpiggyBacis a novel, indispensable tool for forward functional genomics inP. falciparumthat will help better understand parasite biology and accelerate drug and vaccine development.
Malaria is a leading infectious disease that affects 400–600 million people, causing 2–3 million deaths, every year . Out of the fourPlasmodiumspecies that cause malaria,Plasmodium falciparumis responsible for much of the mortality associated with the disease primarily due to lethal infections in young children of sub-Saharan Africa. A continuous rise in parasite drug-resistance has further hindered malaria control strategies and resulted in increased number of deaths in the last few years .
The current post-genome era has witnessed a progression of functional genomics studies accomplished inP. falciparum, providing valuable information about parasite biology [3–8]. Despite these enormous efforts,Plasmodiumgenomes continue to be perplexing with more than 50% of the genes coding for hypothetical proteins with limited homology to model organisms. High throughput methods for identification of gene functions are imperative to better understand parasite biology and develop effective disease control strategies. However, generating gene disruptions through classic reverse genetic approaches is a complex and inefficient process inP. falciparum, due to an extremely low parasite transfection efficiency and the parasite's ability to maintain transfected plasmids as episomes, resulting in only less than 1% of the total annotated genes knocked out thus far [9,10].
Insertional mutagenesis approaches are widely used in prokaryotes and eukaryotes for genome characterizations. Specifically, transposon-mediated mutagenesis has emerged as a powerful molecular genetic tool for eukaryotic transgenesis [11–14] and is extensively used to create gene disruptions, trap promoters and enhancers, and generate gene fusions in model organisms such asDrosophilaand yeast [12,14]. However, the lack of such advanced genetic approaches inPlasmodiumis a major impediment to elucidating the parasite genome.
piggyBacis a 'cut-and-paste' transposon that inserts into TTAA target sequences in the presence of apiggyBactransposase [15,16].piggyBachas gained recent acclamation as a genetic tool due to its functionality in various organisms [17–19] and ability to integrate more randomly into genomes . Moreover,piggyBac's insertion preference for transcription units [17,20] enhances its efficacy in large-scale mutagenesis studies to identify gene functions. We had earlier reported the development of an efficient,piggyBac-based system for genetic manipulation ofP. falciparum. In this study, we improved efficiency of thepiggyBactransposition system forP. falciparumand evaluated its application in whole-genome functional analysis of this most lethal human malaria parasite.
Obtaining unbiased insertions into the genome is critical for whole-genome mutagenesis and other large-scale analyses. Hence, we evaluated the randomness ofpiggyBacinsertions into theP. falciparumgenome by comparing the functional categories of genes withpiggyBacinsertions to all annotated genes in the genome. An identical functional distribution of genes was seen in bothpiggyBacinsertion loci and the genome (Fig.3b) except for fewer insertions in genes involved in DNA metabolism/DNA-binding and invasion/pathogenesis (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.038 and P = 0.04, respectively). Since the parasite erythrocytic stages were used forpiggyBactransformation, we further investigated the bias forpiggyBacinsertions in erythrocytic stage genes relative to genes expressed in other stages of development. By utilizing the gene expression profiling data forP. falciparum, we classified all annotated genes based on their expression in different parasite life cycle stages and confirmed unbiasedpiggyBacinsertions in genes expressed in all parasite stages (Fig.3c). A separate comparison of genes withpiggyBacinsertions in coding sequences only to all genes also revealed no significant insertion bias for any functional category or stage of expression (data not shown).
Even though transposon-mediated mutagenesis is a relatively random process, preferential insertion into genomic hotspots is characteristic of some transposons . In our studies, we observed a significantly higher number ofpiggyBacinsertions in 5' UTRs and a significantly lower number in coding sequences, relative to a distribution of 214 randomly selected genomic TTAA sequences (Fig.3d).
Doubling time estimation ofP. falciparummutant clones
Doubling time estimate (hours)
N/A: WT is reference
Persistent problems with drug resistance and the critical need to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention creates a continuing need to improve our understanding of what is important for growth and development of malaria parasites. A major barrier in experimental malaria research has been a limited ability to manipulateP. falciparumgenes to determine their functions and associated pathways of interactions within the parasite. Large-scale mutagenesis screens are vital for improving our understanding ofPlasmodiumbiology and functional analysis of its genome. Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful approach to identify critical biological processes in an organism and is an approach successfully applied in numerous eukaryotes [11–13]. In particular,piggyBachas become widely used to manipulate genomes and is currently the preferred vector of choice for gene discovery and validation of gene function inDrosophilaand the laboratory mouse [17,20,27–30]. We therefore evaluatedpiggyBacas a novel genetic tool for the functional analysis of theP. falciparumgenome.
Several transposon and transposase plasmids were created and tested inP. falciparumfor maximum transformation efficiency. All the plasmids tested transformed with similar efficiencies except for the helper plasmid, pDCTH, with the double promoter that almost doubled the transformation efficiency. There were no apparent differences in integration specificities of the various plasmids as insertions in the genome were randomly distributed in all cases. The presence of different selectable markers, hDHFR and BSD, in plasmids pLBacII-HDH and pLBacII-HBH respectively, allows re-transformation and complementation of previously transformed drug-resistantP. falciparumclones. The plasmids pLBacII-HDH-GFP and pLBacII-HDH-eGFP can trap promoters in the genome if inserted in the right orientation downstream to an endogenous promoter as shown previously . These plasmids can also be modified for stable transgene expression with or without GFP tag. Parasites transformed with pLBacII-HDGH, with hDHFR-GFP fusion as selectable marker, display high levels of fluorescence and are amenable to sorting by Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Transformation with the plasmid pLBacII-HDH-KanOri inserts the kanamycin resistance gene and a pUC origin of replication into the parasite genome that allows for plasmid rescue from the genome for easy identification of insertion sites.
The genome-wide integration ofpiggyBacinto genes in all functional categories, expressed in all parasite life cycle stages, validates its application in whole-genome mutagenesis ofP. falciparum. Almost all mutantP. falciparumclones generated had singlepiggyBacinsertions in their genomes, which will aid in easy correlation of mutant phenotypes to their respective genotypes. The increased number of insertions obtained in 5' UTRs of genes indicates either active changes in chromatin structure allow easy access forpiggyBacto the genomic DNA or the affinity of the transposase for chromatin associated factors unique to these regions. Alternatively, this skewed distribution could simply be the inability to recover mutants with insertions in coding sequences of essential genes, whereas insertions in 5' UTRs of essential genes may not completely abolish gene expression and hence may not be lethal.
From whole-genome mutagenesis perspectives, insertions in 5' UTRs may have a varied effect on neighbouring gene expression. Insertions in 5' UTRs could either increase gene expression, possibly due to better recruitment of transcription machinery, or decrease gene expression by blocking transcription. A meaningful approach would therefore be to subject all 5' UTR mutants to phenotypic analyses as either increased or decreased gene expression can significantly alter intracellular activities. Such a scenario might be particularly beneficial in identifying essential genes that cannot be knocked out in the parasite. Nevertheless, 22% of the insertions were obtained in coding sequences generating 39 gene knockouts, which almost equal the number of unique gene knockouts generated inP. falciparumthus far until a recent large-scale study achieving 53 gene knockouts , using conventional methods . Such high propensity to create gene disruptions and the ability to rapidly generate stable lines of mutant clones, warrants the use ofpiggyBacin large-scale mutagenesis studies not only to identify gene functions, but also to discriminate the essential and dispensable regions of the parasite genome that will further confine the search for potent drug targets.
The most significant application of random mutagenesis is the ability to perform forward genetic screens to select mutants of a desired phenotype. Our limited phenotypic screen for attenuated parasite growth confirmed the feasibility of such approaches inP. falciparumby identifying several genes and pathways critical for blood-stage development. One of the most severely affected mutant parasites identified in our screen is a knockout of MAL8P1.104 (clone F3), which is thePlasmodiumorthologue of yeastCaf1(CCR4-associated factor 1) . In yeast, CAF1 is a component of CCR4-NOT complex that is a global regulator of gene expression, controlling chromatin remodelling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA stability and protein degradation . Experimental protein interaction data indicates a similar functional complex exists inP. falciparum and with a scarcity of known transcription factors or identifiable conserved regulatory elements inPlasmodium, deadenylation may be extremely significant in controlling gene expression through regulating mRNA abundance by degradation .
The significance of protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in regulating parasite cellular activities is also clearly demonstrated by the attenuated growth phenotype of our knockout of PFF0770c (clone A5), which encodes one of the 12 type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) found inPlasmodium. PP2Cs carry out a wide range of functions in higher eukaryotes including intracellular signalling and providing cell cycle and developmental check points [37–39]. Two PP2Cs, in the closely related apicomplexanToxoplasma, were recently shown to be involved in parasite motility and host cell modulation [40,41].
Another mutant clone displaying attenuated growth was a knockout of PF10_0350 (clone E6) that codes for a hypothetical protein unique toPlasmodiumspecies and attests to the theory that such uniquePlasmodiumgenes need to be investigated further as antimalarial targets.piggyBacinsertion in the 5' UTRs of PFC0271c and PFC0275w, coding for glutaredoxin and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively, resulted in increased levels of both transcripts in the mutant clone B7 as seen by quantitative RT-PCR (data not shown), indicating that optimal expression of genes is essential for normal parasite growth.
Several other phenotypic screens such as those for virulence, drug resistance, gametocytogenesis and transmissibility of infection to mosquito hosts can now be accomplished inP. falciparumthat will contribute immensely to our current understanding of parasite biology.
Apart from its application in whole-genome mutagenesis and phenotype screens,piggyBacis also a powerful tool for stable transgene expression inP. falciparumas any parasite strain or clone of interest can be transformed. We have confirmed the functionality ofpiggyBacsystem in three different strains ofP. falciparumthus far, including, NF54, 3D7, and HB3, and have obtained genomic insertions of up to 7 kb of DNA (including the drug selection cassette) with no reduction in transformation efficiency (Balu and Adams, unpublished data) . The ability to express transgenes stably from the genome offers numerous possibilities to study various biological aspects of the parasite such as, coordinated gene expression, phenotypic effects of copy number variations and protein trafficking.
Despite years of efforts,Plasmodiumbiology remains puzzling due to its complexity and refractoriness to routine genetic analyses. By using thepiggyBactransposable element inP. falciparum, we have clearly demonstrated the possibility of whole-genome mutagenesis and forward functional genomics in this lethal malaria parasite that will drastically advance our understanding ofPlasmodium's parasitic and pathogenic abilities and quicken the search for new drug targets and vaccine candidates.
piggyBacplasmids used for transfections were derived from previously reported plasmids pXL-BACII-DHFR and pHTH .
pLBacII-HDH-pXL-BacII-DHFR was digested with XhoI and the site was removed by filling in the overhangs with klenow and religation to yield pLBacII-DHFR. The human DHFR selection cassette in pLBacII-DHFR was then replaced with a different human DHFR drug selection cassette from the plasmid pHD22Y  using EcoRI/BamHI to yield pLBacII-HDH.
pLBacII-HDH-GFP- Thegfpcoding sequence along with 3'Pbdhfrwas amplified as a single fragment from the vector pHH2  by PCR with extensions for restriction sites SpeI and ApaI using primers F-ACTAGTGCGGCCGCCTACCCT and R-GGGCCCGGTACCCTCGAGATCTTAGAATGAAGATCTTATTAC. The PCR product was then cloned into pGEM-Teasy vector (Promega) and sub-cloned into pLBacII-HDH using ApaI and SpeI.
pLBacII-HDH-eGFP- A 200 bp region of 5'eba-175was amplified from theP. falciparumgenome using primers F-ATCGATGAATATAATTGATTGATTGTAATAAAAAGTG and R-GGGCCCTGTATGCACATTGAATATATTTATATGTTATTATC and cloned into pLBacII-HDH-GFP as a ClaI/ApaI fragment.
pLBacII-HDH-KanOri- The kanamycin resistance gene and pUC origin of replication were amplified as a single fragment by PCR from the vector pEGFP-C1 (Clontech) using primers F-ATGATGATGGGATCCAAATGTGCGCGGAACCCC and R-ATGATGATGGGATCCGCAAAAGGCCAGCAAAAGG and cloned into pGEM-Teasy vector (Promega). The fragment was then sub-cloned into the plasmid pLBacII-HDH as a BamHI fragment.
pLBacII-HBH- The hDHFR coding sequence was first cut out from the vector pHD22Y using NsiI and HindIII and replaced with the blasticidin-S-deaminase (BSD) coding sequence that was cut out from the vector pCBM-BSD  using NsiI and HindIII. The BSD selection cassette in pHD22Y was then moved as an EcoRI/BamHI fragment into the vector pL-BacII-DHFR to yield pLBacII-HBH.
pLBacII-HDGH- The hDHFR-GFP fusion gene was cut out from the vector pHDGFP2  using NsiI and HindIII and cloned into pHD22Y replacing the human DHFR coding sequence. The whole selection cassette was then moved as an EcoRI/BamHI fragment into the vector pLBacII-DHFR to yield pLBacII-HDGH.
pDCTH- The plasmid with a dual promoter for transposase expression was created by PCR amplifying 5'Pcdhfr-tsand 5'calmodulinas an EcoRI fragment from the plasmid pHC1-CAT  using primers F-ATGATGGAATTCCCTGATATATTTCTATTAGGTATTTATTA; R-ATGATGGAATTCTTTGTAAGTTTTAGGTGTGTGTAT and swapping it with the 5'hsp86region in the helper plasmid, pHTH.
P. falciparumclone NF54 was cultured in human erythrocytes at 5% hematocrit in RPMI1640 medium containing 0.5% Albumax II, 0.25% sodium bicarbonate and 0.01 mg/ml gentamicin. Transfections were performed using red blood cells as described previously . Briefly, mature blood-stage parasites were purified on a MACS magnetic column (Miltenyi Biotec) and 1 million purified parasites were added to erythrocytes loaded with 100 μg of the transposon plasmid and 50 μg of the transposase plasmid to start a 5 ml parasite culture. Individual mutant clones were obtained by limiting dilution of parasites post-drug selection.
Genomic DNA (2 μg) extracted from transformed parasites was digested with 10 units of either Dra I or Rsa I and used either in inverse PCR  or vectorette PCR reactions according to manufacturer's instructions (UVS1 Vectorette™ Genomic Systems, Sigma). The amplified PCR products were sequenced with primers inpiggyBacinverted terminal repeats  and analyzed using MACVECTOR software (MacVector, Inc.). Insertion sites were identified by performing BLAST searches using NCBIhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/seq/BlastGen/BlastGen.cgi?taxid=5833and PlasmoDB databases .
where, D is the intrinsic parasite doubling time and m0 is the theoretical parasite number at time 0. To compare directly the growth rate of parasite clones with slightly different starting parasitemias, the -fold increase of the parasite number, normalized to have a single theoretical parasite for each culture at time 0, was used for graphing the growth curve . One hundred parameter initiation values ranging from 5 to 105 were tested and the best converging model with the smallest Sum Square of Error (SSE) was chosen for estimation of doubling time.
We thank Dr. C. Szekeres and Dr. R. Chen at USF Health core facilities for help with flow cytometry and statistical analyses, respectively. We thank B. White, B. Wisler and Y. Xi at the University of Notre Dame for their technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to J.H.A.
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