Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: The use of Artificial Neural Networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data
- Carol Iversen†1,
- Lee Lancashire†1, 2,
- Michael Waddington3,
- Stephen Forsythe1 and
- Graham Ball1, 2Email author
© Iversen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 19 January 2006
Accepted: 13 March 2006
Published: 13 March 2006
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to accurately characterise from complex biochemical datasets and computer algorithms can potentially simplify the process.
Artificial Neural Networks were applied to biochemical and 16S rDNA data derived from 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates, in order to identify key characteristics which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii. The models developed resulted in a predictive performance for blind (validation) data of 99.3 % correct discrimination between E. sakazakii and closely related species for both phenotypic and genotypic data. Three main regions of the partial rDNA sequence were found to be key in discriminating the species. Comparison between E. sakazakii and other strains also constitutively positive for expression of the enzyme α-glucosidase resulted in a predictive performance of 98.7 % for 16S rDNA sequence data and 100% for phenotypic data.
The computationally based methods developed here show a remarkable ability in reducing data dimensionality and complexity, in order to eliminate noise from the system in order to facilitate the speed and reliability of a potential strain identification system. Furthermore, the approaches described are also able to provide valuable information regarding the population structure and distribution of individual species thus providing the foundations for novel assays and diagnostic tests for rapid identification of pathogens.
Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula milk that can lead to neonatal meningitis, necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis [1–5]. The International Commission for Microbiological Specifications for Foods  has ranked E. sakazakii as 'Severe hazard for restricted populations, life threatening or substantial chronic sequelae or long duration'. Therefore as there is no accepted gold standard methodology, the correct definition and identification of E. sakazakii is important for powdered infant formula manufacturers, as well as regulators, clinicians and epidemiologists.
In 1980, Farmer and co-workers  defined the species and described fifteen biogroups according to biochemical profiles. A defining characteristic has been activity of the α-glucosidase enzyme. Consequently selective, differential media incorporating chromogenic or fluorogenic α-glucosides such as the indolyl substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α, D-glucopyranoside have been developed [8, 9]. It has been reported that 100% of E. sakazakii (n = 129) were positive for α-glucosidase in comparison to 0% of other Enterobacter species (n = 97) ; however a small number of other Enterobacteriaceae test positive for this enzyme.
Recently 16S rDNA sequencing has revealed that commercial biochemical test kits identified more than one species as 'E. sakazakii' , and that there are at least four genetically and biochemically distinct subgroups of E. sakazakii. In this study we applied Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) [12–14] to biochemical and 16S rDNA data in order to identify key phenotypic characteristics and nucleotide sequences which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii in respect to, a) other Enterobacteriaceae, and b) non-E. sakazakii α-glucosidase positive Enterobacteriaceae.
ANNs are adaptive, non linear forms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) inspired by the way the human brain learns and processes information in order to solve specific problems, such as pattern recognition and classification problems. The multi-layer perceptron (MLP) ANN is a form of feed-forward ANN architecture which contains several layers, with each node in one layer being connected to every node in the next by a series of weighted links. When used with the back-propagation algorithm, this type of ANN learns in a fashion analogous to the way learning in the human brain is carried out, that is, by example. In humans, learning involves minor adjustments being made to the synaptic connections between neurons, in ANNs, learning is achieved by updating the weights that exist between the processing elements that constitute the network topology.
ANNs were applied to biochemical and 16S rDNA data derived from 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates, in order to identify key characteristics which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii. Results show that ANNs have the potential to identify key features from the data, both for biochemical tests and sequence data. These key features may then be used to form the basis of novel rapid identification systems, which have the ability to classify samples by strain and eliminate the risk of false positive and negative results.
Model development and classification analysis
A MLP ANN was used together with the back-propagation algorithm. Inputs to the network represented biochemical test results or sequence ID; two hidden nodes were used in the hidden layer for mathematical feature detection and a single output node was used to represent species class, with a class assignment of 1 representing E. sakazakii strains, and 2 representing all other strains. Models were developed utilising a random sample cross validation approach where 100 random training/test/validation sub-models were run and evaluated. This repeated random sampling guarantees that all samples are treated as blind data a number of times, to ensure model generality and to enable confidence intervals to be calculated for each sample. For each of the models a full analysis was conducted including sensitivity analysis to determine the importance ratio of each input. This process removed all of the inputs singularly from the model. The error of predictions was then measured for each of the inputs removed. The sensitivity ratio was then calculated based on the performance with and without the given input. The hypothesis here is that if a given input is important its removal will have strong negative effect on predictive performance. Therefore a sensitivity ratio greater than one indicates an input whose removal is detrimental for the model. Additionally, the analysis of predictive performance was performed to evaluate model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, and assessment of the raw ANN predictions was conducted for the positioning of individuals within the population.
16S rDNA sequence data
Top 20 nucleotides involved in classification from partial 16S rDNA data. Regions shown in this table are highlighted in Figure 3.
Classification of α-glucosidase positive strains
Biochemical tests for the differentiation of E. sakazakii.
E. sakazakii (n = 189)
other α-glucosidase positive strains (n = 39)
other Enterobacteriaceae (n = 54)
Models have been developed to identify (i) key biochemical tests and (ii) important areas of the DNA sequence which can be used in the accurate discrimination of E. sakazakii from other closely related species. Furthermore, the study was expanded to differentiate between E. sakazakii strains and other α-glucosidase positive Enterobacteriaceae. To date methods for the isolation and identification of E. sakazakii have used the α-glucosidase reaction and production of yellow pigment as presumptive differentiating characteristics. However these methods can result in presumptive false positives due to groups of as yet undefined non-E. sakazakii Enterobacteriaceae which are also positive for both of these characteristics. Use of yellow pigment as a defining characteristic can also result in false negatives due to the occurrence of non-pigmented E. sakazakii and the occasional transient nature of this trait. While there is no single test that can be used to differentiate E. sakazakii from other species we identified biochemical profiles that may help to improve the likelihood of correct species identification.
Deriving a population distribution (Figure 2) from the analysis of the influence of biochemical tests in sample classification showed samples to appear in distinct clusters. This supports the interpretation of the partial 16S rDNA clustering (Figure 1). The ANN model incorrectly identified two of the non-E. sakazakii strains as being E. sakazakii. The identities of these strains are highlighted in Figure 2, and these samples may provide a basis for further studies because they are being incorrectly classified as a result of them displaying characteristics of both of the two groups, but are being determined to be more related to the E. sakazakii group. Alternatively, since the 16S identification is based on differences between a number of nucleotide bases, the combinations of these is different for different species. The ANN models search for common elements of these bases, which are consistently represented in each class, and classifies based on these commonalities. Considering this, together with the incorrectly identified non- E. sakazakii strains, leads to the view that there may not be one base, or a series of bases, that are unique to E. sakazakii, and in some strains, such as those incorrectly identified by the model, common elements exist between E. sakazakii, and other strains.
Results from the analysis of the 16S rDNA data indicate that the key inputs identified were present in three distinct areas of the sequence and these areas were subsequently all regions that varied structurally among domains (Figure 3).
ANNs display their potential use in reducing model dimensionality and complexity, in order to facilitate the speed and reliability of a potential strain identification system. These methods are also able to provide valuable information regarding the population structure and distribution of individual species. These technologies may provide the foundations for novel assays and diagnostic tests for rapid identification of pathogens, and subsequently reducing the risk of incorrect diagnosis due to the occurrence of false positive and negative test results.
Genotypic and phenotypic data was collected for 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates and 39 other α-glucosidase positive strains. Strains were from diverse food, clinical and environmental sources worldwide. Clinical isolates were from cases occurring over the last 25 years. At least one original strain from each of the biogroups described when the E. sakazakii species was designated were included .
Biochemical characteristics were derived from commercial test kits (API 20E and ID32E, bioMérieux UK Ltd.; Biolog GN2, Biolog, CA; and Microbact 24E, Oxoid UK Ltd.) and conventional manual tests as per standard protocols. Tests were performed in triplicate on separate days. Motility was determined at 37°C after 24 h and 48 h using motility medium (tryptose 10 g l-1, NaCl 5 g l-1, agar 5 g l-1, pH 7.2 ± 0.2. Acid production from carbohydrates was tested in phenol red broth base (10 g l-1 peptone, 1 g l-1 yeast extract, 5 g l-1 NaCl, 0.018 g l-1 phenol red) with addition of filter-sterilized carbohydrate solution (final concentration 0.5%). Gas production was determined by collection in Durham tubes. The methyl red test was performed at 48 h on cultures grown in MR-VP broth (VWR, 1.05712.0500). The Voges-Proskauer test was performed at 24 h by addition of 40% potassium hydroxide in water and 5% 1-naphthol in ethanol to cultures grown in MR-VP broth. Indole production was measured at 24 h by addition of Kovacs reagent (5 g p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, 25 ml HCl, 75 ml pentanol-1-ol) or James Reagent (70542 bioMérieux) to cultures grown in Peptone Water (CM0009 Oxoid Ltd). Nitrate reduction was measured by addition of 1% sulphanilamide in 1 M HCl and 0.02% N-1 naphthylene diamine HCl in water. Zinc dust was added to negative tubes to confirm the presence of unreduced nitrate. Constitutive metabolism of X-α-glucoside was determined by formation of blue-green colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α, D-glucopyranoside (Chromogenic Enterobacter sakazakii medium (DFI formulation) CM1055, Oxoid Ltd.; and ESIA, AES Laboratoire, France).
Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing
This was performed by Accugenix (Newark, DE, USA) using the MicroSeq™ 500 16S rDNA Bacterial Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems). DNA was prepared for PCR by quick-heat lysis by removing one colony into a tube of PrepMan Ultra™ (Applied Biosystems) and placed at 99°C for 10 min. Two microlitres of genomic DNA was amplified in 50 μl of a master mixture consisting of 0.4 μM TGGAGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG and TACCGCGGCTGCTGGCAC primers, 200 mM deoxynucleoside triphosphates, PCR buffer, 0.3 U of AmpliTaq DNA polymerase, and 10% glycerol. PCR conditions were 95°C for 10 min; 30 cycles each of 95°C for 30 s, 60°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 45 s; and a final step at 72°C for 10 min. Purification of the PCR product to remove excess primers and nucleotides was performed using Montage SEQ96 filter plates (Millipore). Cycle sequencing was performed with the sequencing module, and after removal of excess dyes using Montage SEQ96 filter plates (Millipore), the labelled extension products were separated on an ABI 3100 16 capillary genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Partial sequencing was performed for all isolates, the length of the partial rDNA was 528 nucleotides, and in addition the full sequence for the E. sakazakii type strain (NCTC 11467) was obtained.
The data was analysed using Bionumerics (Applied Maths, Belgium) to construct Neighbour Joining trees, bootstraps were derived from 1000 replicates and the Jukes-Cantor correction applied.
The full 16S sequence was used for the representation of the secondary structure of the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. sakazakii NCTC 11467. Nucleotide numbering follows the Reference Numbering System used for E. coli J01695 .
List of abbreviations
Artificial Neural Network
The authors would like to thank the following for the provision of strains; Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland; Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada; CDC, Atlanta, USA; Children's Hospital Los Angeles CA, USA; Northern Foods, UK; Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, UK; Hospital Cěské Budéjovice, Czech Republic; Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Germany; NCHT, Nottingham, UK; St. Radboud Nymegen, Netherlands. Cultures from national collections were either from the NCTC, London, UK; the NCIMB Ltd, Aberdeen, Scotland; or the ATCC, Manassas, VA 20108 USA
- Muytjens HL, Zanen HC, Sonderkamp HJ, Kollee LA, Wachsmuth IK, Farmer JJ: Analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to Enterobacter sakazakii . J Clin Microbiol. 1983, 18: 115-120.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Lai KK: Enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults: Case reports and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2001, 80: 113-122. 10.1097/00005792-200103000-00004.View Article
- van Acker J, de Smet F, Muyldermans G, Bougatef A, Naessens A, Lauwers S: Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula. J Clin Microbiol. 2001, 39: 293-297. 10.1128/JCM.39.1.293-297.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Himelright I, Harris E, Lorch V, Anderson M: Enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula – Tennessee, 2001. JAMA. 2002, 287: 2204-2205. 10.1001/jama.287.17.2204.View Article
- Iversen C, Forsythe S: Risk profile of Enterobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen associated with infant milk formula. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2003, 14: 443-454. 10.1016/S0924-2244(03)00155-9.View Article
- Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, ICMSF: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Micro-organisms in Foods Number 7. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. 2002, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
- Farmer JJ, Asbury MA, Hickman FW, Brenner DJ, The Enterobacteriaceae Study Group: Enterobacter sakazakii, new species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1980, 30: 569-584.View Article
- Iversen C, Druggan P, Forsythe S: A selective differential medium for Enterobacter sakazakii, a preliminary study. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004, 96 (2): 133-139. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.01.024.View ArticlePubMed
- Leuschner RG, Bew J: A medium for the presumptive detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula: Interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int. 2004, 87 (3): 604-613.PubMed
- Muytjens H, van der Ros-van de Repe J, van Druten HAM: Enzymatic profiles of Enterobacter sakazakii and related species with special reference to the alpha glucosidase reaction and reproducibility of the test system. J Clin Microbiol. 1984, 20: 684-686.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Iversen C, Waddington M, On S, Forsythe S: Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species. J Clin Microbiol. 2004, 42 (11): 5368-5370. 10.1128/JCM.42.11.5368-5370.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ball G, Mian S, Holding F, Allibone RO, Lowe J, Ali S, Li G, McCardle S, Ellis IO, Creaser C, Rees RC: An integrated approach utilizing artificial neural networks and SELDI mass spectrometry for the classification of human tumours and rapid identification of potential biomarkers. Bioinformatics. 2002, 18: 395-404. 10.1093/bioinformatics/18.3.395.View ArticlePubMed
- Lancashire LJ, Mian S, Ellis IO, Rees RC, Ball GR: Current developments in the analysis of proteomic data: Artificial neural network data mining techniques for the identification of proteomic biomarkers related to breast cancer. Curr Proteomics. 2005, 2: 15-29. 10.2174/1570164053507808.View Article
- Lancashire L, Schmid O, Shah H, Ball G: Classification of bacterial species from proteomic data using combinatorial approaches incorporating artificial neural networks, cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21: 2191-2199. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti368.View ArticlePubMed
- Gutell Lab Comparative RNA Web Site.http://www.rna.icmb.utexas.edu
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.