The three extra-cellular zinc metalloproteinases of Streptococcus pneumoniae have a different impact on virulence in mice
© Chiavolini et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2003
Received: 14 April 2003
Accepted: 03 July 2003
Published: 03 July 2003
Streptococcus pneumoniae possesses large zinc metalloproteinases on its surface. To analyse the importance in virulence of three of these metalloproteinases, intranasal challenge of MF1 outbred mice was carried out using a range of infecting doses of wild type and knock-out pneumococcal mutant strains, in order to compare mice survival.
Observation of survival percentages over time and detection of LD50s of knock out mutants in the proteinase genes in comparison to the type 4 TIGR4 wild type strain revealed two major aspects: i) Iga and ZmpB, present in all strains of S. pneumoniae, strongly contribute to virulence in mice; (ii) ZmpC, only present in about 25% of pneumococcal strains, has a lower influence on virulence in mice.
These data suggest Iga, ZmpB and ZmpC as candidate surface proteins responsible for pneumococcal infection and potentially involved in distinct stages of pneumococcal disease.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen responsible for community acquired pneumonia, as well as meningitis, sepsis and milder infections like otitis media . The principal factors involved in the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae are the capsule and pneumococcal surface proteins and enzymes such as PspA, PspC, neuraminidase, pneumolysin and hyaluronidase [2–4]. A characteristic feature of S. pneumoniae and other oral streptococci is the presence of large proteases (1800–2001 amino acids) on the cell surface. Except for one serine protease, these enzymes are zinc metalloproteinases and are thought of contributing to the virulence of S. pneumoniae. The published genome sequences show that S. pneumoniae possesses two to four zinc metalloproteinases depending on the strain [5–8]. The best characterized of these enzymes is Iga which cleaves human IgA1 in the hinge region [9–12]. IgA1 protease was found to be important in lung infection and sepsis following large-scale virulence factor identification studies [13, 14] and in in vitro studies performed on epithelial cells . IgA proteases are common to a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguis, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, Prevotella melaninogenica, Capnocytophaga spp [10, 16–18]. The second pneumococcal zinc metalloproteinase with an assigned function is ZmpC, which was recently shown to specifically cleave human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)  and to participate in pneumococcal pathogenicity in an experimental mouse model of intranasal challenge and sepsis [5, 13, 14]. This role links ZmpC to the group of bacterial proteases  involved in disruption of extracellular matrix and tissue destruction and invasion. No specific function has yet been described for ZmpB , although a knockout mutant devoid of zmp B was recently shown to be significantly attenuated in murine models of pneumonia and sepsis .
Molecular epidemiological data obtained through sequencing and probe screening (including microarray) [10, 15, 22] evidence that the pneumococcal, and the related streptococcal, zinc metalloproteinases evolve in a mosaic like fashion. None of these studies links the presence or absence or the variability of these genes to clinical disease. Genome sequences evidence that Iga (IgA protease) and ZmpB are present in three out of three strains, while ZmpC is missing in R6 [6–8]. Our own recent survey of presence of ZmpC in clinical isolates showed that the zmp C gene is present in 26% of strains and that its presence is linked to isolates from pneumonia .
Large scale studies, carried out to identify virulence genes in S. pneumoniae, report different results concerning surface zinc metalloproteinases. None of these enzymes seems to be important in a serotype 3 strain virulence , two of them are reported to be important in the virulence of a type 19F strain  and all three appear to play an important role in the virulence of a type 4 strain . In the present work, we conducted intranasal challenge studies, using ten fold dilutions of infecting doses just above the LD50 of the wild type strain, to compare the role in pathogenesis of the three zinc metalloproteinases (Iga, ZmpB and ZmpC) present in the encapsulated S. pneumoniae type 4 TIGR4 strain .
Construction of mutants
Efficiency of transformation of deletions into TIGR4
size of inserted marker
size of deletion
trans-forming DNA (ng/ml)
trans-formants (CFU/ ml)
SP0071 – zmp C
757 (including 27 bp of zmp C)
807 (including 1 bp of zmp C)
SP0664 – zmp B
715 (including 25 bp of zmpB)
838 (from 7 bp after zmp B)
894 (erm B)
SP1154 – iga
801 (including 11 bp of iga)
828 (including 27 bp of iga)
Survival of mice is improved following induction of pneumonia with zinc metalloproteinase knock-out mutants of TIGR4 pneumococcal strain
The cell surface is the prime interface between any microorganism and the host. A total of 23 proteins of over 1500 amino acids are present in the three published pneumococcal genome sequences (7–8 proteins / genome) [6–8] and all of these proteins, except one (DNA methylase of a conjugative transposon), are surface located. Out of these 22 large surface located proteins, 12 are proteinases (2–4 zinc metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase / genome), 7 are involved in cleavage of carbohydrates (3 acetylglucosaminidases, 3 beta-galactosidases and an uncharacterised glycosyl hydrolase) and 3 are of unknown function. Extracellular zinc metalloproteinase are recognised to be important virulence determinants of several human pathogens, acting on target cells as intracellular toxins, as in Bacillus anthracis (lethal factor) , Clostridium botulinum (neurotoxin) , Clostridium tetani (neurotoxin) , or as extracellular toxins, as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pseudolysin, elastase, neutral metalloproteinase) , Staphylococcus aureus (aureolysin, neutral proteinase) , Vibrio cholerae (hemagglutinin/proteinase, vibriolysin) , and Listeria monocytogenes . Concerning Streptococcus pneumoniae, three studies based on large scale investigations on pneumococcal virulence genes by signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) are available. They respectively focus on (i) a serotype 19F strain (strain G54) studied in pneumonia (108 CFU of a pool of 50 mutants given intranasally) and septicaemia models (103, 104 and 105 CFU given intraperitoneally) in BALB/C mice , (ii) a serotype 3 strain (strain 0100993) in pneumonia (2 × 107 CFU of a pool of 94 mutants delivered intranasally) and bacteraemia (105 CFU given intraperitoneally) models in Swiss CD1 and CBA/J mice  and (iii) a serotype 4 strain (TIGR4) in a pneumonia model (2 × 107 CFU of a pool of 63 mutants delivered intranasally) in Swiss Webster outbred mice . While Lau et al.  did not identify zinc metalloproteinases as virulence determinants using a type 3 strain, both works on a type 19F and on a type 4 strain, pointed out the involvement of zinc metalloproteinases in pneumococcal virulence and pathogenesis. Polissi et al.  described strong virulence reduction in a sepsis model of a iga mutant (19F type, the SP1154-homologue of G54 is deposited as SPN03143). However the presence of tandem zinc metalloproteinase genes in this locus (see Figure 1 in ref ) does not allow to ascertain the specific contribution of Iga in virulence reduction. Concerning ZmpC, mutation of this locus in the 19F background, is reported to generate attenuation in a pneumonia mouse model while no reduction of virulence is reported in the sepsis model (the SPN1471 mutant is described by Polissi et al.  as mutated in a protease having 40% amino acid identity and 60% homology to pneumococcal IgA protease – values which match ZmpC). Hava and Camilli  identified all three pneumococcal zinc metalloproteinases, using a type 4 strain, as important virulence factors in pneumonia: however the mutants were not further characterized through testing bacteraemia and nasal carriage . Two of the three reports agree on the inability to recover proteinase mutants in mice infected with 200 to 1000 times the LD50 of a wild type strain. This lack of fitness, thus, does not clarify if the loss of virulence might depend on other competing co-infecting clones (increased generation time, lack of cleavage of housekeeping factors etc.) or on the interaction of bacterial strains with host factors (decreased resistance to phagocytosis, impaired adhesion or invasion, impaired cleavage of host compounds etc.). Studies on single proteinase mutants are up to now limited to the description of zmp C mutants in a septicaemia model by Polissi and colleagues  and in our intranasal model . In the septicaemia model the zmp C mutant does not show reduction of virulence , which is in accordance with our observation describing an unaltered level of bacteremia is when intranasally challenging mice with this mutant . The reduced of the number of mice developing sepsis (intranasal inoculum) , has been proposed to indicate that the contribution to pathogenesis and disease of ZmpC relates to an event prior to invasion of the bloodstream. For the other proteinase preliminary data were reported by the groups of Mitchell and Claverys , who found that deletion of zmp B caused a significant reduction in bacteraemia levels and increased survival time following both intranasal and intravenous challenge.
The aim of the present work was to characterise in parallel the impact of the mutations in single zinc metalloproteinase genes on pneumococcal virulence. Mutants in all three zinc proteinase genes, iga, zmp B and zmp C, were generated and used to carry out in vivo virulence experiments, after confirming that in vitro growth parameters of mutant strains matched the ones of the wild type. Our intranasal infection animal model  is comparable to other models [13, 14, 32, 33], which describe pneumonia development and subsequent death due to sepsis in mice. Our data show that the two proteinases present in all pneumococcal strains (Iga and ZmpB) [5–8] (Figure 1) greatly contribute to virulence in mice as demonstrated by the 36-fold reduction of mice LD50 (Figure 3). ZmpC (Figure 1), present in only about 25% of strains , has a lower impact on animal survival, considering there was only a 4.7-fold reduction in mutant virulence with respect to the parent strain (Figure 2 and 3). Our data are in accordance with the STM data of Hava and Camilli , who describe the importance of all zinc metalloproteinases on the virulence of serotype 4 TIGR4 strain. Our data in part confirm results of Polissi et al.  who report attenuation in virulence of iga and zmp C mutants. Differently, our data do not match the results obtained by Lau et al , who do not describe the zinc metalloproteinases genes as related to virulence. Comparing our data to these studies it is difficult to understand whether these discrepancies depend on the use of different pneumococcal serotypes or on other factors (STM library used, mouse strain, growth media, or size of inoculum).
The main conclusion arising from our work is that the use of a variety of doses in infection studies is essential in order to detect the impact of the different extra-cellular zinc metalloproteinases on virulence. This is evidenced by the fact that 100 LD50 were lethal for all animals within few days despite the mutations. The attenuation of the zmp C mutant observed only at one challenge dose (106 CFU) further underlines the importance of the infecting bacterial dose in virulence factor analysis. Altogether our data thus confirm STM data carried out on the same bacterial strain and add knowledge on the impact of the single mutations on pathogenesis after intranasal infection.
In order to clarify and compare the impact of three large extracellular zinc metalloproteinases, denominated as Iga, ZmpB and ZmpC, on virulence of S. pneumoniae, we conducted in vivo studies by intranasal infection in mice using knock-out mutant bacteria, and observed disease symptoms and detected LD50s of each pneumococcal strain. Our data show that in this specific disease model IgA and ZmpB significantly contribute to the virulence of the pneumococcus, while the impact of ZmpC is less profound. The present findings propose these proteins as candidate surface enzymes contributing to pneumococcal disease in the lung. Still, an important aspect, not covered by the present work relates to the different and possible multiple substrates of the enzymes. Although the role of Iga was recently linked to adhesion (IgA mediated adhesion) , and the one of ZmpC to invasion (cleavage of MMP-9)  a single disease model may not be sufficient in clarifying their in vivo function. Comparative studies of bacterial dissemination to different organs (mucosa, lung, blood, spleen, and CSF) following induction of different pneumococcal diseases (pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia) via different routes (intranasal, intravenous, intracerebral), may be needed for the characterisation of the specific role in virulence of the single zinc metalloproteinases.
Construction of mutants and assessment of bacterial growth
Chromosomal regions with deletions of the three zinc metalloproteinases were amplified from unencapsulated TIGR4 [6, 34] derivatives in which the proteinase genes were replaced with antibiotic resistance cassettes . For in vivo experiments, mutantagenic constructs were transferred into the encapsulated TIGR4 strain and denominated as FP122 (ΔSP0071/zmpC), FP173 (ΔSP0664/zmpB) and FP174 (ΔSP1154/iga) respectively (Table 1). All PCR procedures were performed with the Expand High Fidelity Kit (Roche) to reduce the risk of errors in the extension process. The structure of the recombinant chromosomal locus was controlled in selected transformants by PCR using primers located on the marker, the deleted gene and surrounding conserved segments. In order to evaluate the growth rate of the mutants in comparison to the wild type, FP122, FP173, FP174 and TIGR4 bacterial strains were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) without selection and the growth curve was read in a Bonet-Maury Biophotometre (Jobin Yvon, Division d'Instruments, S.A.).
Transformation procedures were principally as described previously [5, 34–36]. In brief, cells grown to O.D. 590 nm of 0.05 in CAT/GP were diluted 1/100 in CTM and grown for 30 min. Serial aliquots (4 × 1.5 ml for each time point) taken every 15 min are frozen at -80°C. One aliquot for each time point is transformed using chromosomal DNA carrying a point mutation conferring resistance to novobiocin to assay for the competence of the collected aliquots. The aliquot yielding the highest number of transformants is used for further experiments. The competence for genetic transformation in TIGR4 cells used in this work, to generate the k.o. mutants for the three zinc metalloproteinase genes, was found to be 5.2 × 102 CFU/ml (novobiocin resistant transformants).
Zinc metalloproteinase sequences and phylogenic analysis
Phylogenic analysis was carried out aligning protein sequences, since DNA sequences differed too much to permit a comparative evaluation. Due to the mosaic structure of the streptococcal zinc metalloproteinases only the 180 amino acids surrounding the protease active site were used to generate the treefile. Analysis was done by using standard parameters with the freely downloadable software ClustalX ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/dos/clustalx/, for alignments and calculation of the trees, and TreeView 1.6.1. http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/treeview.html, for viewing the outputs. Published zinc metalloproteinases were downloaded from GenBank [6–8], while preliminary sequence data were obtained from The Institute for Genomic Research through the website at http://www.tigr.org and from The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute through the website at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/ (last accessed January 27th 2003).
Outbred 9-weeks-old female MF1 mice  weighing 21–25 g were obtained from Harlan Nossan (Correzzana, Italy). Animals were allowed to settle in the new environment for 1 week before performing the experiments, they were caged into groups of 6 and given food and water ad libitum. All animal experiments were conducted according to institutional guidelines.
Experimental mouse model of pneumonia
Encapsulated TIGR4 strain and its isogenic derivatives Δzmp C/SP0071 (FP122), Δzmp B/SP0664 (FP173) and Δiga/SP1154 (FP174) were passaged in female MF1 mice as previously described [5, 38]. Passaged bacteria were grown in TSB at 37°C to an OD590 = 0.3, centrifuged for 20 minutes at 1500 g, resuspended in fresh TSB with 15% glycerol and frozen in aliquots at -70°C. Before use, bacteria were thawed at room temperature, harvested by centrifugation and resuspended in sterile PBS. To allow pulmonary infection, mice were fully anaesthetized by intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 1 mg/kg Zoletil (Virbac) and 0.12% Xylor (Xylazine). Doses ranging from 105 to 107 cfu were administered to the nostrils of mice (n = 6–12) by giving a total volume of 20 μl of the bacterial inoculum with a Gilson pipette. Mice were regularly monitored for clinical symptoms (starry fur, hunched appearance, lethargy); symptoms were recorded over 8 days (168 hours), at which point the experiment was ended.
Differences in mice survival over time between wild type and mutant strains were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon Test, considering the last day of clinical symptoms observation (8 days). A value of P < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. Differences in mice survival percentage at each single dose between wild type and mutant strains were analyzed with Fisher's Exact Test by using GraphPad InStat. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.
DC carried out all animal experiments, performed statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript.
GM constructed all knock-out mutants and performed most molecular biology experiments.
TM participated in the molecular biology experiments.
FI designed methodology to generate pneumococcal mutants.
GP participated in the design and coordination of the study and is responsible for the funds used.
MRO coordinated the study, performed phylogenic analysis and all bio-informatic experiments and finalised the manuscript.
The work was supported in part by grants from Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, California), the Commission of the European Union (contract QLK2-2000-01536) and MIUR (COFIN 2002). The authors thank TIGR and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute for sequences available over the web. Sequencing by TIGR of Streptococcus pneumoniae 670-6B was accomplished with support from NIAID / Univ. of Alabama, sequencing of Streptococcus gordonii was accomplished with support from TIGR and sequencing of Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261 was accomplished with support from NIH-NIDCR. Sequencing by The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute of Streptococcus pneumoniae Spanish 23F-1, in collaboration with Tim Mitchell and Peter Andrew, was accomplished with support from Beowulf Genomics.
- Gillespie SH: Aspects of pneumococcal infection including bacterial virulence, host response and vaccination. J Med Microbiol. 1989, 28: 237-248.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paton JC, Andrew PW, Boulnois GJ, Mitchell TJ: Molecular analysis of the pathogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae: the role of pneumococcal proteins. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1993, 47: 89-115.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mitchell TJ, Alexander JE, Morgan PJ, Andrew PW: Molecular analysis of virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1997, 26: 62S-71S.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mitchell TJ: Virulence factors and the pathogenesis of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Res Microbiol. 2000, 151: 413-419. 10.1016/S0923-2508(00)00175-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oggioni MR, Memmi G, Maggi T, Chiavolini D, Iannelli F, Pozzi G: Pneumococcal zinc metalloproteinase ZmpC cleaves human matrix metalloproteinase 9 and is a virulence factor in experimental pneumonia. Mol Microbiol. 2003, Online publication date: 23-Jun-2003Google Scholar
- Tettelin H, Nelson KE, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Read TD, Peterson S, Heidelberg J, DeBoy RT, Haft DH, Dodson RJ, Durkin AS, Gwinn M, Kolonay JF, Nelson WC, Peterson JD, Lowell AU, White O, Salzberg SL, Lewis MR, Radune D, Holtzapple E, Khouri H, Wolf AM, Utterback TR, Hansen CL, McDonald LA, Feldblyum TV, Angiuoli S, Dickinson T, Hickey EK, Ingeborg EH, Loftus BJ, Yang F, Smith HO, Venter JC, Dougherty BA, Morrison DA, Hollingshead SK, Fraser CM: Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science. 2001, 293: 498-506. 10.1126/science.1061217.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dopazo J, Mendoza A, Herrero J, Caldara F, Humbert Y, Friedli L, Guerrier M, Grand-Schenk E, Gandin C, de Francesco M, Polissi A, Buell G, Feger G, Garcia E, Peitsch M, Garcia-Bustos JF: Annotated draft genomic sequence from Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19F clinical isolate. Microb Drug Resist. 2001, 7: 99-125. 10.1089/10766290152044995.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoskins J, Alborn WE, Arnold J, Blaszczak LC, Burgett S, Dehoff BS, Estrem, S.T., Fu DJ, Fuller W, Geringer C, Gilmour R, Khoja H, Kraft AR, Lagace RL, LeBlanc DJ, Lee LN, Lefkowitz EJ, Lu J, Matsushima P, McAhren SM, McHenney M, McLeaster K, Mundy CW, Nicas TI, Norris FH, O'Gara M, Peery RB, Robertson GT, Rockey P, Sun PM, Winkler ME, Yang Y, Young-Bellido M, Zhao G, Zook CA, Baltz RH, Jaskunas SR, Rosteck PR, Skatrud PL, J.I.John and: Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. J Bacteriol. 2001, 183: 5709-5717. 10.1128/JB.183.19.5709-5717.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kornfeld SJ, Plaut AG: Secretory immunity and the bacterial IgA proteases. Rev Infect Dis. 1981, 3: 521-534.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poulsen K, Reinholdt J, Kilian M: Characterization of the Streptococcus pneumoniae immunoglobulin A1 protease gene (iga) and its translation product. Infect Immun. 1996, 64: 3957-3966.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wani JH, Gilbert JV, Plaut AG, Weiser JN: Identification, cloning, and sequencing of the immunoglobulin A1 protease gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 1996, 64: 3967-3974.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kilian M, Reinholdt J, Lomholt H, Poulsen K, Frandsen EVG: Biological significance of IgA1 proteases in bacterial colonization and pathogenesis: critical evaluation of experimental evidence. APMIS. 1996, 104: 321-338.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Polissi A, Pontiggia A, Feger G, Altieri M, Mottl H, Ferrari L, Simon D: Large-Scale Identification of Virulence Genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 1998, 66: 5620-5629.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hava DL, Camilli A: Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors. Mol Microbiol. 2002, 45: 1389-1405. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03106.x.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weiser JN, Bae D, Fasching C, Scamurra RW, Ratner AJ, Janoff EN: Antibody-enhanced pneumococcal adherence requires IgA1 protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 4215-4220. 10.1073/pnas.0637469100.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reinholdt J, Kilian M: Comparative analysis of Immunoglobulin A1 protease activity among bacteria representing different genera, species and strains. Infect Immun. 1997, 65: 4452-4459.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Senior BW, Dunlop JI, Batten MR, Kilian M, Woof JM: Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases. Infect Immun. 2000, 68: 463-469. 10.1128/IAI.68.2.463-469.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hakenbeck R, Balmelle N, Weber B, Gardes C, Keck W, de Saizieu A: Mosaic genes and mosaic chromosomes: Intra- and Interspecies Genomica Variation of Streptococcus pneumoniae . Infect Immun. 2001, 69: 2477-2486. 10.1128/IAI.69.4.2477-2486.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Potempa J, Banbula A, Travis J: Role of bacterial proteinases in matrix destruction and modulation of host responses. Periodontology 2000. 2000, 24: 153-192. 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2000.2240108.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berge M, Garcia P, Iannelli F, Prere MF, Granadel C, Polissi A, Claverys JP: The puzzle of zmpB and extensive chain formation, autolysis defect and non-traslocation. Mol Microbiol. 2001, 39: 1651-1660. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02359.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blue CE, Claverys JP, Mitchell TJ: The Role of a Zinc Metalloprotease in the Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Sixth European Meeting on the Molecular Biology of the Pneumococcus, Siena, Italy. 2002,http://www.unisi.it/eventi/europneumo/Google Scholar
- Poulsen K, Reinholdt J, Jespergaard C, Boye K, Brown TA, Hauge M, Kilian M: A comprehensive genetic study of streptococcal immunoglobulin A1 proteases: evidence for recombination within and between species. Infect Immun. 1998, 66: 181-190.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lau GW, Haataja S, Lonetto M, Kensit SE, Marra A, Bryant AP, McDevitt D, Morrison DA, Holden DW:: A functional genomic analysis of type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2001, 40: 555-571. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02335.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Claverys JP, Dintilhac A, Pestova EV, Martin B, Morrison DA: Construction and evalutation of new drug-resistance cassettes for gene disruption mutagenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae, using an ami test platform. Gene. 1995, 164: 123-128. 10.1016/0378-1119(95)00485-O.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oggioni MR, Pozzi G: Comparative genomics for identification of clone-specific sequence blocks in Streptococcus pneumoniae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001, 200: 137-143. 10.1016/S0378-1097(01)00209-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tonello F, M Seveso, O Marin, Mock M, Montecucco C: Screening inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor. Nature. 2002, 418: 386-10.1038/418386a.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossetto O, M Seveso, Caccin P, Schiavo G, Montecucco C: Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: turning bad guys into good by research. Toxicon. 2001, 39: 27-41. 10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00163-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kamath S, Kapatral V, Chakrabarty AM: Cellular function of elastase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: role in the cleavage of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and in alginate synthesis. Mol Microbiol. 1998, 30: 933-941. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.01121.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karlsson A, Arvidson S: Variation in extracellular protease production among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus due to different levels of expression of the protease repressor sarA. Infect Immun. 2002, 70: 4239-4246. 10.1128/IAI.70.8.4239-4246.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fullner KJ, Boucher JC, Hanes MA, Haines GK3rd, Meehan BM, Walchle C, Sansonetti PJ, Mekalanos JJ: The contribution of accessory toxins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor to the proinflammatory response in a murine pulmonary cholera model. J Exp Med. 2002, 195: 1455-1462. 10.1084/jem.20020318.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Raveneau J, Geoffrey C, Beretti JL, Gaillard JL, Alouf JE, Berche P: Reduced virulence of Listeria monocytogenes phospholipase-deficient mutant obtained by transposon insertion into the zinc metalloprotease gene. Infect Immun. 1992, 60: 916-921.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kadioglu A, Gingles NA:, Grattan K, Kerr A, Mitchell TJ, Andrew PW: Host cellular immune response to pneumococcal lung infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2000, 68: 492-501. 10.1128/IAI.68.2.492-501.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kadioglu A, Sharpe JA, Lazou I, Svanborg C, Ockleford C, Mitchell TJ, Andrew PW: Use of green fluorescent protein in visualisation of pneumococcal invasion of broncho-epithelial cells in vivo. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001, 194: 105-110. 10.1016/S0378-1097(00)00497-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pearce BJ, Iannelli F, Pozzi G: Construction of new unencapsulated (rough) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Res Microbiol. 2002, 1: 2-10.Google Scholar
- Pozzi G, Masala L, Iannelli F, Manganelli R, Havarstein LS, Piccoli L, Simon D, Morrison DA: Competence for genetic transformation in encapsulated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: two allelic variants of the peptide pheromone. J Bacteriol. 1996, 178: 6087-6090.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bricker AL, Camilli A: Transformation of a type 4 encapsulated strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999, 172: 131-135. 10.1016/S0378-1097(99)00027-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gingles NA:, Alexander JE, Kadioglu A, Andrew PW, Kerr A, Mitchell TJ, Hopes E, Denny P, Brown S, Jones HB, Little S, Booth GC:, McPeath WL: Role of genetic resistance in invasive pneumococcal infection: identification and study of susceptibility and resistance in inbred mouse strains. Infect Immun. 2001, 69: 426-434. 10.1128/IAI.69.1.426-434.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canvin JR, Marvin AP, Sivakumaran M, Paton JC, Boulnois GJ, Andrew PW, Mitchell TJ: The role of pneumolysin and autolysin in the pathology of pneumonia and septicemia in mice infected with a type 2 pneumococcus. J Infect Dis. 1995, 172: 119-123.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.