Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus
© Tachezy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2002
Received: 21 April 2002
Accepted: 10 July 2002
Published: 10 July 2002
An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined.
The PePV genome (7304 basepairs) differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) papillomavirus (FPV) reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree.
The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution.
Papillomaviruses are a large group of pathogens that cause epithelial proliferations in a wide spectrum of vertebrate species. More than 100 different human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been isolated [1, 2]. Such an extensive genotype variety has not yet been detected in nonhuman species, although papillomavirus genomes have been isolated from many species where careful investigational efforts were made [3, 4]. Most papillomaviruses appear to be species-specific or at least restricted to infection of closely related animals within the same genus. Papillomavirus genomes have been cloned from 20 mammalian host species. Thus far, only two avian papillomavirus genomes were cloned, one from a chaffinch and the second from a parrot papilloma. To date no complete avian papillomavirus genome had been sequenced.
In a large survey of 25,000 captured chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) in the Netherlands, papillomas were found on the foot or tarsometatarsus (the bare part of the leg) of 1.3% of the birds . The DNA of a Fringilla PV (FPV) was isolated from such skin papillomas, and two partial sequences of FPV, totaling about 900 basepairs, were determined [6, 7]. Papillomavirus particles have also been observed using electron microscopy in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) , and in canaries (Serinus canarius) .
Cutaneous papillomas were observed on the palpebrae, commisure of the beak, and the head of a captive African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) . The Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus genome was cloned , and abbreviated PePV in accordance with the nomenclature guidelines for nonhuman papillomaviruses . PePV DNA was also detected in one other oral papilloma of an African grey parrot, and was not present in an oral papilloma of an Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala), nor in 24 cloacal papillomas of Amazon parrots, macaws (Ara sp.), conures (Aratinga sp.) and cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) [12, 13].
This report describes the first complete nucleotide sequence of an avian papillomavirus from a cutaneous lesion of an African grey parrot: PePV.
Results and discussion
Complete sequence of the PePV genome
Open reading frame organization
Unusual ORFs have also been described in the genomes of the Europen elk papillomavirus, deer papillomavirus, and reindeer papillomavirus, which contain a transforming gene (E9) between the E2 and L2 ORFs . The subgroup B bovine papillomaviruses (BPV-3, -4, and -6) are another group of papillomaviruses that lack an E6 (but do have an E7) [14, 18]. Instead of an E6, there is a BPV-4 E8 ORF that encodes a 42-residue polypeptide that can transform NIH3T3 cells . No discernable homology between BPV-4 E8 and PePV E8 sequences was detected. It seems that E6 functions are either not required by some papillomaviruses, or that they are performed by another viral (or host) protein. It remains to be established if this unique organization of the early region is typical for PePV or common to other/all avian papillomaviruses.
Upstream regulatory region (URR)
In PePV, the noncoding region or upstream regulatory region (URR) between the stop codon of L1 and the first ATG of E8 is only 460 bp long (nucleotides (nt) 6845–7304). Only one typical palindromic E2-binding site (E2BS) with the consensus sequence ACC-N6-GGT is found at nt 7214–7225. Two additional atypical putative E2BS (ACC-N4-GGT) are found at nt 7020–7029 and 7174–7183. The URR also contains a polyadenylation site (AATAAA; nt 7279–7284) located 16 nucleotides 5' of a CA dinucleotide, necessary for the processing of the L1 and L2 capsid mRNA transcripts.
PePV sequence similarity to other papillomaviruses
Position of the open reading frames of PePV.
Percentage nucleotide (amino acid) similarity of the different PePV ORFs with corresponding ORFs of HPV-1, HPV-5, HPV-16, and BPV-1.
In order to compare the PePV sequence with that of the chaffinch (FPV), we retrieved two partially overlapping partial sequences in the FPV L1 ORF (GenBank accession numbers K02020 and U29669) and one piece of FPV E1 sequence (K02019) from GenBank [7, 20]. A total of 312 amino acids (132 E1 and 180 L1 residues) could be compared for both viruses. The similarity at the amino acid level between PePV and FPV was 68% in the E1 region, and 47% in the L1 region.
Divergence between PePV and FPV coincides with divergence of their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes host species
Mammals and birds diverged around 310 million years (Myr) ago during the late Paleizoic Era . The start of the first avian differentiation into Paleognathae (larger, flightless birds such as ostrich, rheas, cassowary, emu, and kiwi), Galliformes (turkey, chicken), Anseriformes (duck, goose) and other Neognathae (all other extant modern birds) is currently thought to have coincided with the Mesozoic breakup of the world-continent Pangaea at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary 146 Myr ago . Most of the extant avian orders were establishing themselves at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary 65 Myr ago . The Psittacus erithacus belongs to the family of the Psittacidae in the order of the Psittaciformes (parrots), whereas the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) belongs to the family of the Fringillidae in the order of the Passeriformes (perching birds).
The rates of nucleotide substitutions between two homologous sequences can be used as a measure for the time elapsed since the two sequences diverged (i.e. the molecular clock concept). When we know the papillomavirus mutation rate, we can approximate the divergence time between PePV and FPV. We earlier calculated a papillomavirus mutation rate based on the divergence of the Felis domesticus PV (FdPV-1) and the canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) since the divergence of their Felidae and the Canidae host species 38–50 Myr ago, to be 0.73 to 0.96 × 10-8 nucleotide substitutions per site per year . We constructed a 921 bp pairwise alignment between PePV and FPV for 441 bp in E1 and 480 bp in L1 where the nucleotide sequence of FPV was available in GenBank (corresponding to nt 1908–2348 and 6107–6586 in PePV). In this 921 bp alignment, 385 differences between PePV and FPV were observed. Using the estimations of the mutation rates derived from the feline/canine papillomavirus divergence, this corresponds to PePV and FPV diverging from each other 44 to 57 Myr ago. Since these calculations were based on alignments of the most conserved regions in the papillomaviral genome, this calculation is likely an underestimation of the true divergence time. This would place the PePV/FPV divergence at about the same time that their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes host species were diverging from each in the Late Cretaceous or Early Tertiary period. The high level of congruence between divergences in the papillomavirus phylogenetic tree and the divergence of their host species lineages supports co-speciation. Co-speciation was also hypothesized to be a prominent feature in mammalian and avian herpesvirus evolution .
Papillomaviruses in inbred species: emerging infectious pathogens?
Although African grey parrots are not yet officially listed as an endangered species, their survival is threatened by the same factors that most other exotic parrot species face, and they are monitored by the World Wildlife Fund for conservation concerns. In nature, the range of the African Grey parrot extends from Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, Congo, Uganda, nortwestern Tanzania, and southwestern Kenya. Human-caused destruction and fragmentation of their habitats in the tropical rain forests cause an increase in inbreeding and reduced heterozygosity. The illegal parrot smuggling trade also causes the natural population size to decrease, and the ensuing import restrictions lead animal breeders to a higher degree of inbreeding in the captive population. Reduced diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes due to inbreeding and genetic bottlenecks may contribute to an increased sensitivity to emerging infectious pathogens, as has been observed in exotic felids . Whenever a population goes through a demographic and genetic reduction, papillomaviruses seem to become more prevalent. This has been documented in endangered exotic felid species, such as the snow leopard, where papillomaviruses are causing an increasing number of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas . Also the Florida manatee, one of the most endangered marine mammals in American coastal waters, currently suffers from an epidemic of viral papillomatosis . We have previously described this phenomenon in pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) and in Greenlandic Inuits and Navajo Indians, where species-specific papillomaviruses (PpPV and HPV-13, respectively) cause oral focal epithelial hyperplasia, a disease rarely encountered in non-inbred populations [31, 32].
Papillomaviruses are ancient viruses that infect amniotes
The amniotes (Amniota) are a clade that includes the dinosaurs and most of the extant land-dwelling vertebrates, namely mammals, birds and reptiles. They evolved 360 to 286 Myr ago during the Carboniferous Period in the late Paleozoic Era. Papillomaviruses have currently been characterized in more than 20 mammalian species, and in 2 avian species. Papillomavirus particles have also been described in a a Bolivian side-neck turtle reptile species . Since papillomaviruses have been described in mammals, birds and reptiles, and were never found in amphibians or fish, it is tempting to speculate that the host-specificity of papillomaviruses would encompass the amniotes. This means that species-specific papillomaviruses could potentially infect more than 20,000 living species, living in virtually every habitat of the planet. We know that papillomaviruses have been detected throughout the world, even in non-gregarious hosts. This wide geographic distribution cannot be attributed to transmission as an airborne infection (with the possible exception of pulmonary fibromatosis in European elks) , since transmission of papillomaviruses requires close direct cutaneous or mucosal contact.
Together with the viral species-specificity and the genomic stability of their double-stranded DNA, this requirement for close physical contact makes it unlikely that interspecies transmission in recent history can account for the global presence of a spectrum of papillomaviruses in many amniotes. Assuming that, like humans, all of the more than 20,000 species in the amniotes clade have their own set of species-specific genotypes (humans have more than 100 HPV genotypes), papillomaviruses could be the oldest, largest, and most diverse viral family.
Materials and methods
The PePV genome was cloned in the Sal I restriction enzyme site of pBR322 . Subclones were prepared by partial digestion of the PePV-insert with Sau 3AI. The Sau 3AI restriction fragments were ligated with dephosphorylated Bam HI-cut pUC19. After transformation of MAX Efficiency DH5α E. coli (Life Technologies/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), the bacteria were incubated for blue-white colony screening on agar plates containing X-gal and IPTG. Ten Sau 3AI-subclones with a PePV-insert ranging in size from 250 to 1900 basepairs were investigated. Plasmid DNA was extracted using the QIAGEN Midi Plasmid Purification Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). Nucleotide sequencing was started using pBR322-specific primers or the universal primers in the multiple cloning site of pUC19. Primer walking sequencing was performed, using 59 sequencing primers to cover the complete genome on both strands. Sequencing was performed on an ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer (Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) at the Leuven and Prague core DNA sequencing facilities. Chromatrogram sequencing files were inspected with Chromas 2.2 (Technelysium, Helensvale, Australia), and contigs were prepared using SeqMan II (DNASTAR, Madison, WI).
DNA sequence submission
The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper were deposited in GenBank using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD) BankIt v3.0 submission tool http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BankIt/ under accession number AF502599.
DNA and protein sequence analysis
DNA and protein similarity searches were performed using the NCBI WWW-BLAST (Basic local alignment search tool) server on GenBank DNA database release 118.0 . Molecular weight of the putative proteins was calculated using the Molecular Biology Shortcuts (MBS) ProtCALC program http://www.justbio.com/protcalc/. The subcellular location of proteins was predicted using the PSORT II server at the National Institute for Basic Biology in Okazaki, Japan http://psort.nibb.ac.jp[15, 16]. Protein motif searches were performed using SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool) at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de, InterPro (release 4.0) at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro, and Prosite (release 17.7) at the proteomics server of ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System) of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) http://www.expasy.ch/prosite. Pairwise sequence alignments were calculated using the GAP-program on the Sequence Analysis Server at Michigan Technological University http://genome.cs.mtu.edu/align/align.html. Maizel-Lenk dot matrix plots were calculated via the DotMatrix module on the 'Molecular Toolkit' server of Colorado State University http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/molkit/dnadot/index.html using a (for PV full genome alignment optimal) window size of 115 nucleotides and a mismatch allowance of 60/115. Multiple sequence alignments were prepared using CLUSTALW , and corrected in the GENEDOC alignment editor . Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA version 2.1 .
This work was supported by a grant of the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen), Brussels, Belgium, and by grant N° 6077-3 of the Granting Agency of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic. Annabel Rector received a fellowship of the University of Leuven.
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