Ochrobactrum anthropi (O. anthropi) is a non-fermenting, aerobic, gram-negative bacillus that exhibits widespread resistance to β-lactam antibiotics [1, 2] and is able to colonize a variety of environments, namely soil, plants, insects, animals and humans . Reports of opportunistic/nosocomial infections caused by O. anthropi have been increasing over the last decade [4–6], and the ability of O. anthropi to adhere to silicone may play a role in catheter-associated infections [6, 7]. Furthermore, O. anthropi populations may adapt in response to habitat and host interactions, as previously described in human clinical isolates [3, 8]. In the human infection: a catheter-associated bacteremia caused by O. anthropi has been shown . In literature, the infections due to O. anthropi involved catheter related bacteremia, whereas endophalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic, pelvic and pancreatic abscess often as monomicrobial infection have been reported [1, 4, 6, 9]
According to their habitat, the population structure of O. anthropi varied. For example, biological and genomic microdiversity was higher in bulk soil than in the rhizoshere [10, 3]. Authors related this difference in diversity level to the expansion of clones adapted to metabolites produced by rhizodeposition .
Among the few publications regarding the known methods for typing of O. anthropi relevant papers are those from Romano et al., 2010  dealing with MLST and PFGE. Also, Bathe et al., 2006  described the rep-PCR of O. anthropi (however with a instrument different than Diversilab, bioMerieux). Finally, Bizzini et al., 2010  reported on Maldi-TOF characterization of O. anthropi.
The different typing methods used, mainly rep-PCR and Maldi-TOF, in terms of time, accuracy and costs may allow to obtain more timely, accurate results with higher resolution among the different strains involved in hospital outbreak. When this infection did occur in our hospital, we set out to study the identification and typing of the twentythree O. anthropi strains. Strain typing was carried out by automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR-based DiversiLabTM system, bioMèrieux, France) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Proteome profiling was performed through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS).
The application of accurate and more powerful techniques, used for typing, should be encouraged for monitoring the spread of bacteria and nosocomial infection control.