Open Access

Decontamination of mycoplasma-contaminated Orientia tsutsugamushistrains by repeating passages through cell cultures with antibiotics

  • Motohiko Ogawa1Email author,
  • Tsuneo Uchiyama2,
  • Masaaki Satoh1 and
  • Shuji Ando1
BMC Microbiology201313:32

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-32

Received: 2 August 2012

Accepted: 17 January 2013

Published: 8 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Mycoplasmas-contamination of Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the obligated intracellular bacteria, is a very serious problem in in vitro studies using cell cultures because mycoplasmas have significant influence on the results of scientific studies. Only a recommended decontamination method is to passage the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains through mice to eliminate only mycoplasmas under influence of their immunity. However, this method sometimes does not work especially for low virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi which are difficult to propagate in mice. In this study, we tried to eliminate mycoplasmas contaminants from both high virulent and low virulent strains of the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi by repeating passage through cell cultures with antibiotics in vitro.

Results

We cultured a contaminated, high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi using a mouse lung fibroblasts cell line, L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin at various concentrations and repeated passages about every seven days. At the passage 5 only with 10 μg/ml of lincomycin, we did not detect mycoplasmas by two PCR based methods whereas O. tsutsugamushi continued good growth. During following four passages without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results suggested that mycoplasmas were completely eliminated from the high virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Furthermore, by the same procedures with 10 μg/ml of lincomycin, we also eliminated mycoplasmas from a contaminated, low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. Our additional assay showed that 50 μg/ml of lyncomycin did not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, although MICs of many mycoplasmas contaminants were less than 6 μg/ml as shown previously.

Conclusion

Our results showed an alternative method to eliminate mycoplasmas from the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains in place of in vivo passage through mice. Especially this notable method works for the decontamination not only from the high virulent strain also from the low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi. For further elimination, lincomycin at the limit concentration, which does not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, can possibly eliminate most mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains.

Keywords

Orientia tsutsugamushi Intracellular bacteria Mycoplasma Contamination Elimination Cell culture Antibiotics

Background

The contamination of cell cultures by mycoplasmas is a serious problem because these bacteria have multiple effects on cell cultures and also have a significant influence on the results of scientific studies. The mycoplasmas are not harmless bystanders and thus cannot be ignored in the cell cultures.

Various elimination methods were previously reported [13]. These methods are mainly based on four general procedures, physical, chemical, immunological and chemotherapeutic treatment. The physical procedures include heat treatment and filtration. The chemical procedures, treatments to detergents and other chemicals which are effective only against mycoplasmas, but not against host cells. The immunological procedures include in vitro co-culture with macrophages and specific anti-mycoplasmas antisera and in vivo passage thorough mice. The chemotherapeutic procedures are mainly antibiotics treatments that are kills mycoplasmas.

Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is the causative agents of scrub typhus is one of the obligated intracellular bacteria [4]. The mycoplasmas-contaminations of O. tsutsugamushi is also very serious in the in vitro studies using cell cultures. Furthermore the most effective methods for elimination of mycoplasmas can not be applied for decontamination of O. tsutsugamushi strains because these methods also inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi. Decontamination methods should have strong effect on mycoplasmas, but have minimum or no effect on O. tsutsugamushi. Only the recommended decontamination method is to passage the contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains through mice. Mouse immunity possibly eliminates only mycoplasmas, although O. tsutsugamushi can survive in its target cells, mainly endothelial cells, splenocytes and hepatocytes. In fact, homogenized spleen of infected mice is generally used for the next inoculation. However, this method sometimes does not work especially for low virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi because they are generally difficult to propagate in mice.

Some of the antibiotics, which are used for elimination of mycoplasmas from tissue culture, are supposed to have less effect against O. tsutsugamushi according to the differences of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics between mycoplasmas [57] and O. tsutsugamushi[8]. In this study, we tried to eliminate mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains by repeating passages through cell cultures with antibiotics in vitro.

Results and discussion

According to the MICs of antibiotics in the previous reports [5, 79], we used two antibiotics, lincomycin and ciprofloxacin for elimination of mycoplasmas from the contaminated O.tsutsugamushi strains (Table 1). Both lincomycin and ciprofloxacin are effective against mycoplasmas. Unfortunately there is no available information about the MICs of lincomycin against O. tsutsugamushi. However, according to the MICs of lincomycin against gram-negative bacteria [10], lincomycin is supposed to be much less effective against O. tsutsugamushi because O. tsutsugamushi is one of the gram-negative bacteria. For the example, the MICs of lincomycin against Escherichia coli, one of the typical gram gram-negative bacteria are more than 50 times higher than those against mycoplasmas. Ciprofloxacin was also less effective against O. tsutsugamushi. The MICs of ciprofloxacin against O. tsutsugamushi are about 3 to 200 times higher than those against mycoplasmas (Table 1).
Table 1

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics used in this study

Antibiotics

Drug class

MICs againstOrientiaa)

MICs against mycoplasmasb)

Lincomycin

Lincosamide

No available data

0.25–2 μg/mL

Ciprofloxacin

New Quinolone

6.25–25 μg/mL

0.125–2 μg/ml

Gentamicin

Aminoglycoside

No available datac)

2.5–500 μg/mL

Kanamicin

Aminoglycoside

No available data

2.5–500 μg/mL

Minocycline

Tetracycline

0.024–0.195 μg/mL

0.016–32 μg/mL

MICs were obtained from previous reports. a) from [8] and b) from [57].

c) Gentamycin was not effective against Orinetia tsutsugamushi in a mouse model [25].

Our result of the direct sequencing showed that Ikeda and Kuroki strains of O. tsutsugamushi were contaminated with Mycoplasma hominis and M. orale respectively. M. hominis and M. orale are 10 to 30% of contaminants of cell cultures (Table 2) [11]. Previous reports showed that M. fermentas, M. hyorhinis, M. arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii are the most common contaminants as well as M. hominis and M. orale. More than 90% of the contaminants were caused by these six mycoplasmas [11, 12]. The TaqMan PCR and the nested PCR can detect not only all the 6 most common contaminants also some other mycoplasmas. These facts suggested that the detection methods were very reliable to monitor mycoplasmas-contaminations in this study.
Table 2

Major mycoplasmas, and their detection and sequencing methods in this study

Species

 

PCR for detection

PCR for Sequencingd)

  
 

Frequency of contaminationa)

tufgene (TaqMan PCR)b)

16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic region (nested PCR)c)

Match of new PCR primers

Strains

Sequence ID

Most common contaminant species

      

Mycoplasma fermentans

10%-20%

+

+

Match

human B cell lymphoma contaminants, 16054780

AY838558

Mycoplasma hyorhinis

10%-40%

+

+

Match

HUB-1

NC_014448.1

Mycoplasma orale

20%-30%

+

+

Partial Match

ATCC 23714D

gi|315440428

Mycoplasma arginini

20%-30%

No Data

+

Partial Match

G230

gi|290575476

Acholeplasma laidlawii

5%-20%

+

+

Match

PG-8A

CP000896

Mycoplasma hominis

10%-20%

+

+

Match

ATCC 23114

M57675

Other species

      

Mycoplasma arthritidis

No Data

+

No Data

Match

158L3-1

NC_011025.1

Mycoplasma bovis

No Data

+

No Data

Match

PG45

NC_014760.1

Mycoplasma buccale

No Data

+

No Data

No data

-

-

Mycoplasma faucium

No Data

+

No Data

No data

-

-

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

No Data

+

No Data

Match

PG31

X16462

Mycoplasma genitalium

No Data

+

+

Match

ATCC33530

X16463

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

No Data

+

No Data

Match

7448

NC_007332.1

Mycoplasma penetrans

No Data

+

No Data

Match

HF-2

NC_004432.1

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

No Data

+

+

Match

FH

X55768

Mycoplasma primatum

No Data

+

No Data

No data

-

-

Mycoplasma salivarium

No Data

+

+

Partial Match

ATCC 23064D

gi|313575713

Ureaplasma parvum

No Data

+

No Data

Match

ATCC 33697

AF270770

Mycoplasma zalophi

No Data

No Data

No Data

Match

CSL 4296

gi|148536300

Mycoplasma mycoides

No Data

No Data

No Data

Match

PG1

gi|126252003

Mycoplasma capricolum

No Data

No Data

No Data

Match

ATCC 27343

gi|83319253

Mycoplasma agalactiae

No Data

No Data

No Data

Match

PG2

gi|148291314

Mycoplasma pyrum

No Data

No Data

+

No data

-

-

a) Upper 6 species of mycoplasmas are the most common contaminants of cell cultures [11, 12].

b) This broad-range TaqMan PCR can detect many species of mycoplasmas [22].

c) This nested PCR is highly sensitive, and it is used to check for mycoplasma contamination in the Cell Bank of BioResource Centre, Riken Tsukuba Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan [21].

d) PCR assay for sequencing of mycoplasmas designed in this study. Partial Match means that 2 or 3 of the total of 4 nested-PCR primers match to available regions of the tuf gene on the public database.

For elimination of mycoplasmas, we first cultured a contaminated, high virulent Ikeda strain of O. tsutsugamushi using L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin and ciprofloxacin and repeated the passages (Figure 1). Lincomycin and ciprofloxacin were used at 100, 10 and 1 μg/ml. However, ciprofloxacin at 100 μg/ml were cytotoxic against L-929 cell in the first assay and was omitted from the further analyses. We checked mycoplasma-contaminations and O. tsutsugamushi-growth at each passage by the two PCR based methods and/or an immunofluorescent (IF) staining (see Additional file 1). From the passage 1 to 2 with 10 μg/ml of lincomycin, the real-time PCR showed that mycoplasmas decreased, whereas O. tsutsugamushi did not decrease. At the passage 4 with the same concentration of lincomycin, the real-time PCR did not detect mycoplasmas, however the nested PCR still detected them. At the passage 5, both the real-time PCR and the nested PCR did not detect mycoplasmas, whereas the flourish growth of O. tsutsugamushi was observed by IF staining. We continued to culture with lincomycin until the passage 6. During following passages from 7 to 10 without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results clearly showed that mycoplasmas were completely eliminated from O. tsutsugamushi-infected cells. However, the cultivation with 100 μg/ml of lincomycin as well as 10 and 1 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin decreased both mycoplasmas and O. tsutsugamushi-growths, whereas the cultivation with 1 μg/ml of lincomycin did not influence the neither growths.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1471-2180-13-32/MediaObjects/12866_2012_Article_1902_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

Illustrations of decontamination of mycoplasma-contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains by repeating passage through cell cultures with antibiotics. Ikeda is a high virulent strain, whereas Kuroki is a low virulent strain, which is difficult to propagate in mice. LCM: lincomycin, CPFX: ciprofloxacin, Myco: mycoplasmas, Ots: O. tsutsugamushi.

By the same procedure of Ikeda strain, we cultured a contaminated, low virulent Kuroki strain of O. tsutsugamushi with lincomycin at 10 μg/ml (Figure 1). Mycoplasmas and O. tsutsugamushi were monitored by the nested PCR and the IF assay respectively (see Additional file 2). At the passage 8, the nested PCR did not detect mycoplasmas. We then continued to cultivate it with lincomycin until the passage 11. During following passages from 12 to 14 without lincomycin, mycoplasmas did not recover. These results showed that we successfully eliminated mycoplasmas also from the low virulent Kuroki strain. The elimination length of Kuroki strain was longer than that of Ikeda strain probably because numbers and/or antibiotics-susceptibility of the contaminated mycoplasmas were different. For further elimination of mycoplasmas from other strains of O. tsutsugamushi, we should first evaluate a maximum concentration of lincomycin that does not influence O. tsutsugamushi-growth, and then apply it for decontamination because maximum effects against mycoplasmas are necessary to eliminate them for a short time and to avoid producing lincomycin-resistant mycoplasmas [1315] during repeating passages. Our additional assay showed that lincomycin at 25 μg/ml did not affect the growth (the virulent strain), whereas 50 μg/ml slightly decreased (did not inhibit) the growth in the IF assay (Table 3). Many previous reports about antibiotics-susceptibilities of isolated mycoplasmas showed that MICs of lyncomycin against M. hominis, M. fermentas and A. laidlawii, which are the major contaminants, were less than 6 μg/ml (0.025 to 6 μg/ml) [5, 1618]. In actual, a previous report showed that lincomycin at 50 μg/ml successfully eliminated the other major contaminants of mycoplasmas, M. hyorhinis and M. hominis from cell cultures [19]. However, a previous report showed that some isolates of M. hyorhinis were highly resistant to lyncomycin (MICs > 100 μg/ml) [14] and a few reports showed that other species of mycoplasmas but not major species of contaminants were highly resistant to lyncomycin [13, 15]. Considering these facts, lincomycin at 50 μg/ml can possibly eliminate the contaminants from many of other contaminated strains of O. tsutsugamushi, although it might not be effective for all the cases.
Table 3

The growth of O. tsutsugamushi at the various concentrations of lincomycin

 

Concentrations of lincomycin in the culture medium

 

12.5 μg/ml

25 μg/ml

50 μg/ml

100 μg/ml

O. tsutsugamsuhi-growtha)

+++

+++

++

-

a) A virulent Ikeda strain was cultivated using L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lyncomycin at the indicated concentrations. The growth was observed by the immunofluorescent staining.

Conclusions

Our results showed an alternative method to eliminate mycoplasmas from the mycoplasma-contaminated strains of O. tsutsugamushi in place of in vivo passage through mice. Especially this new method works for the decontamination not only from the high virulent strain also from the low virulent strain of O. tsutsugamushi, which is difficult to propagate in mice. For further elimination, lincomycin at the limit concentration, which does not inhibit the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, can possibly eliminate most mycoplasmas from contaminated O. tsutsugamushi strains.

Methods

Cell lines

A mycoplasmas-free L-929 cell (a mouse fibroblast cell line, JCRB9003) [20] was grown in Eagle’s minimum essential medium (MEM, Wako Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) supplemented with 5 to 10% of mycoplasma-free, heat-inactivated FCS (Sigma-Aldrich Japan Co. LCC., Tokyo, Japan) at 37°C in 5% CO2.

Mycoplasmas-contaminated O. tsutsugamushistrains for elimination

A mycoplasmas-contaminated high virulent Ikeda strain and a low virulent Kuroki strain of O. tsutsugamushi were used for elimination. These strains were accidentally contaminated during a long passage history probably because mycoplasmas-contaminated cell culture was used for propagation of these strains. The mycoplasma-free L-929 cell was used for propagation as mentioned in the previous section.

Detection and quantification of mycoplasmas

Major mycoplasmas are listed in Table 2. Upper 6 species are the most common contaminants in cell cultures [11, 12]. In order to monitor mycoplasmas, we extracted DNA from O. tsutsugamushi-infected L-929 cell with a commercial DNA extract kit (Tissue genomic DNA extraction mini kit, Favorgen biotech corporation, Ping-Tung, Taiwan) and detected mycoplasmas by two high sensitive and broad range PCR based methods for detection, the nested PCR [21] and the real-time PCR (TaqMan PCR) [22]. The nested PCR is used to check mycoplasma-contaminations in the Cell Bank of Bioresource Centre, Riken Tsukuba institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. For determination of mycoplasma species, we designed new sequencing primers against tuf gene (Table 2). These designed primers matched tuf gene of 19 mycoplasmas on the public database. All the primers and the probe are listed in Table 4.
Table 4

Primers and probes for detection and sequencing in this study

Targets

Assay

Name

Primers and probes

Mycoplasmas

   

tuf genea)

real-time PCR

Mollicutes 414F

5'-TCCAGGWCAYGCTGACTA-3'

  

Mollicutes 541R

5'-ATTTTWGGAACKCCWACTTG-3'

  

Probe 451Fa)

5'-GGTGCTGCACAAATGGATGG-3'

tuf gene

Sequencing 1st

Myco-tuf-F1

5'-HATHGGCCAYRTTGAYCAYGGKAAAA-3'

  

Myco-tuf-F2

5'-ATGATYACHGGDGCWGCHCAAATGGA-3'

 

Sequencing 2nd

Myco-tuf-R1

5'-CCRCCTTCRCGRATDGAGAAYTT-3'

  

Myco-tuf-R2

5'-TKTRTGACGDCCACCTTCYTC-3'

16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region

nested PCR 1st

MCGpF11

5'-ACACCATGGGAGYTGGTAAT-3'

  

R23-1R

5'-CTCCTAGTGCCAAGSCATYC-3'

 

nested PCR 2nd

R16-2

5'-GTGSGGMTGGATCACCTCCT-3'

  

MCGpR21

5'-GCATCCACCAWAWACYCTT-3'

Orientia tsutsugamushi

   

47kDa common antigen coding gene

real-time PCR

Ots-47k-F

5'-AATTCGTCGTGGTATGTTAAATG-3'

  

Ots-47k-R

5'-AGCAATTCCACATTGTGCTG-3'

  

Ots-47k-P b)

5'-TGCTTAATGAATTAACTCCAGAATT-3'

a) Locked nucleic acid (LNA) bases (underlined) and was synthesized with the fluorescent reporter 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) covalently coupled to the 5’ end and a dark quencher to the 3’ end.

b) TaqMan probe was synthesized with the fluorescent reporter 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) covalently coupled to the 5’ end and a dark quencher to the 3’ end.

Detection of O. tsutsugamushi

To monitor the growth of O. tsutsugamushi, we used a real-time PCR against the gene encoding 47kDa common antigen (Table 4). We extracted DNA from O. tsutsugamushi-infected L-929 cell as mentioned in the previous section and performed the real-time PCR according to the general procedure [23]. We also used an IF staining to monitor the growth of O. tsutsugamushi. In this staining, human convalescent sera of a scrub typhus patient, which were permitted by the ethics committee (number 255), and anti-human antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488 (Life technologies Japan Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) were used. A part of the infected cells were harvested and fixed on a glass slide with ice cold acetone and then the slide was applied for the IF staining according to the previous reports [24].

Antibiotics

Lincomycin (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan) and ciprofloxacin (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan) were used for elimination of mycoplasmas in this study. Kanamycin and gentamycin are routinely used for propagation of O. tsutsugamushi to avoid accidental bacterial contamination in our laboratory because they do not influence O. tsutsugamushi-growth [25].

Elimination of mycoplasmas from O. tsutsugamushi-infected cells with antibiotics

We cultured the contaminated strains of O. tsutsugamushi using L-929 cell in the culture medium containing lincomycin and ciprofloxacin at 100, 10 and 1 μg/ml in 25cm2 tissue culture flask, and repeated passages about every seven days. At each passage, the infected cells were harvested. One-third of the harvested cells was used for the next inoculation, another one-third was used for DNA extraction, and the remaining one-third was frozen and stocked. Elimination of mycoplasmas was checked by the nested PCR and/or real-time PCR. The growth of O. tsutsugamushi was monitored by the real-time PCR and/or the IF staining.

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by a grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (number H21-Shinkou-Ippan-006 and H23-Shinkou-Ippan-007 from 2010 to 2012).

Declarations

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases/1-23-1, Toyama
(2)
Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School/3-18-15

References

  1. Uphoff CC, Drexler HG: Eradication of mycoplasma contaminations. Methods Mol Biol. 2005, 290: 25-34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Uphoff CC, Drexler HG: Elimination of mycoplasmas from infected cell lines using antibiotics. Methods Mol Biol. 2011, 731: 105-114. 10.1007/978-1-61779-080-5_9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Uphoff CC, Meyer C, Drexler HG: Elimination of mycoplasma from leukemia-lymphoma cell lines using antibiotics. Leukemia. 2002, 16 (2): 284-288. 10.1038/sj.leu.2402364.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Tamura A, Ohashi N, Urakami H, Miyamura S: Classification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in a new genus, Orientia gen. nov., as Orientia tsutsugamushi comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1995, 45 (3): 589-591. 10.1099/00207713-45-3-589.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Hannan PC: Antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma fermentans strains from various sources and the development of resistance to aminoglycosides in vitro. J Med Microbiol. 1995, 42 (6): 421-428. 10.1099/00222615-42-6-421.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Waites KB, Duffy LB, Schmid T, Crabb D, Pate MS, Cassell GH: In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum to sparfloxacin and PD 127391. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991, 35 (6): 1181-1185. 10.1128/AAC.35.6.1181.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Wu CC, Shryock TR, Lin TL, Faderan M, Veenhuizen MF: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Vet Microbiol. 2000, 76 (1): 25-30. 10.1016/S0378-1135(00)00221-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Miyamura S, Ohta T, Tamura A: Comparison of in vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia prowazekii, R. rickettsii, R. sibirica and R. tsutsugamushi to antimicrobial agents. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. 1989, 44 (5): 717-721. 10.3412/jsb.44.717.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Rolain JM, Maurin M, Vestris G, Raoult D: In vitro susceptibilities of 27 rickettsiae to 13 antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998, 42 (7): 1537-1541.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Ohno R: Antibiotic-books. [http://www.antibiotic-books.jp]
  11. Manilof J, McElhaney RN, Finch LR, Baseman JB: Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. 1992, Washington D.C: American Society for MycrobiologyGoogle Scholar
  12. Drexler HG, Uphoff CC: Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures: Incidence, sources, effects, detection, elimination, prevention. Cytotechnology. 2002, 39 (2): 75-90. 10.1023/A:1022913015916.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Nitu Y, Hasegawa S, Kubota H: In vitro development of resistance to erythromycin, other macrolide antibiotics, and lincomycin in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1974, 5 (5): 513-519. 10.1128/AAC.5.5.513.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Kobayashi H, Nakajima H, Shimizu Y, Eguchi M, Hata E, Yamamoto K: Macrolides and lincomycin susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and variable mutation of domain II and V in 23S ribosomal RNA. J Vet Med Sci. 2005, 67 (8): 795-800. 10.1292/jvms.67.795.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Stopler T, Branski D: Resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to macrolides, lincomycin and streptogramin B. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1986, 18 (3): 359-364. 10.1093/jac/18.3.359.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Aarestrup FM, Friis NF: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996. Vet Microbiol. 1998, 61 (1–2): 33-39.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Harwick HJ, Fekety FR: The antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis. J Clin Pathol. 1969, 22 (4): 483-485. 10.1136/jcp.22.4.483.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Uemura R, Sueyoshi M, Nagatomo H: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of four species of Mycoplasma isolated in 2008 and 2009 from cattle in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2010, 72 (12): 1661-1663. 10.1292/jvms.10-0165.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirschberg L, Bolske G, Holme T: Elimination of mycoplasmas from mouse myeloma cells by intraperitoneal passage in mice and by antibiotic treatment. Hybridoma. 1989, 8 (2): 249-257. 10.1089/hyb.1989.8.249.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Earle WR: Production of malignancy in vitro.The mouse fibroblast cultures and changes seen in the living cells. J National Cancer Res Inst. 1943, 4: 165-212.Google Scholar
  21. Harasawa R, Mizusawa H, Nozawa K, Nakagawa T, Asada K, Kato I: Detection and tentative identification of dominant mycoplasma species in cell cultures by restriction analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Res Microbiol. 1993, 144 (6): 489-493. 10.1016/0923-2508(93)90057-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Stormer M, Vollmer T, Henrich B, Kleesiek K, Dreier J: Broad-range real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of cell-line contaminants and clinically important mollicute species. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009, 299 (4): 291-300. 10.1016/j.ijmm.2008.08.002.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanaoka N, Matsutani M, Kawabata H, Yamamoto S, Fujita H, Sakata A, Azuma Y, Ogawa M, Takano A, Watanabe H, et al: Diagnostic assay for Rickettsia japonica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009, 15 (12): 1994-1997. 10.3201/eid1512.090252.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Ogawa M, Matsumoto K, Parola P, Raoult D, Brouqui P: Expression of rOmpA and rOmpB protein in Rickettsia massiliae during the Rhipicephalus turanicus life cycle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006, 1078: 352-356. 10.1196/annals.1374.069.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. McClain JB, Joshi B, Rice R: Chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin against murine scrub typhus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988, 32 (2): 285-286. 10.1128/AAC.32.2.285.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Ogawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.