Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates
© Fan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 1 April 2012
Accepted: 31 May 2012
Published: 21 June 2012
Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.
Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are generally referred to as a heterogeneous group of bacteria which colonize the rhizoplane and/or rhizosphere and stimulate plant growth [1, 2]. PGPR have been commercially exploited as biofertilizers to improve the yield of crops. Some PGPR have also been successfully used as biocontrol agents to prevent plant diseases caused by phytopathogens, especially some soil-borne diseases [3–5]. The investigations on the interactions between PGPR and their host plants can not only contribute to our understanding of eukaryote-prokaryote relationships, but also have fundamental implications for designing new strategies to promote agricultural plant production.
In recent years, there is increasing evidence that plant root exudates play a key role in plant-microbe interactions [6–10]. Root exudates consist of an enormous range of compounds, among which some can attract beneficial associative bacteria to overcome stress situations . On the other hand, root exudates contain low molecular-weight carbon such as sugars and organic acids that primarily act as energy sources for rhizobacteria and shape bacterial communities in the rhizosphere . To date, however, it remains unclear how root exudates exert differential effects on rhizobacteria and which mechanisms or pathways make rhizobacteria responsive to plant root exudates.
Transcriptome analyses are an efficient approach to study host-microbe interactions at a wider scale. So far, the use of this approach to analyse bacterial gene expression has been extensively used to study pathogenic microbes infecting their host . Only a few studies were performed with beneficial PGPR [13–15]. Several genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in metabolism, chemotaxis and type II secretion were identified to respond to sugar-beet root exudates . In another study, it has been suggested that the availability of particular metabolites in root exudates, especially amino acids and aromatic compounds, support Pseudomonas putida to colonize the rhizosphere . Rhizobium leguminosarum was grown in the rhizospheres of its host-legume pea and two other non-host plants, alfalfa and sugar-beet. Although numerous sugar and putative complex carbohydrate transport systems are induced in the rhizosphere, they are less important carbon sources than organic acids. A common core of rhizosphere-induced genes was identified .
So far, studies on the impact of root exudates on PGPR, have been conducted with Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Azospirillum and Pseudomonas spp. [16, 17]. Related studies performed with Gram-positive PGPR are still missing. Owing to differences in lifestyle and physiology, Gram-positive and Gram-negative rhizobacteria may use distinct mechanisms when interacting with plants. Due to their ability to produce durable endo-spores, bacilli are now preferred in manufacturing biofertilizer formulations , however, their successful application is still hampered by a lack of knowledge about factors determining interactions between plants and those bacteria, especially root colonization is far from being completely understood.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant root-colonizing Gram-positive PGPR. A series of studies has elucidated several aspects of this rhizobacterium, particularly the molecular basis of its plant growth-promoting activity, which is mainly based on the production of secondary metabolites suppressing competitive microbial pathogens occurring in the plant rhizosphere, the secretion of the plant growth hormone auxin, and the synthesis of volatiles stimulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) [19–21]. In the case of Gram-positive PGPR, however, it is still not clear how they maneuver their gene expression when exposed to plant-derived compounds. To address this question, the commercially established FZB42 wild type strain from Bacillus amyloliqufaciens was tested in this study for its transcriptomic responses to maize root exudates using a two-color DNA microarray system.
Results and discussion
Composition of maize root exudates
Maize root exudates were collected from axenic hydroponic cultures and analysed by HPLC for organic acids, amino acids, and oligosaccharides, which have been previously reported to be among the major ingredients in root exudates [8, 22–24].
Overall changes in gene expression in response to root exudates
Validation of microarray result by real-time PCR
The regulated genes with known function
Functional categories* of the FZB42 genes significantly regulated by the maize root exudates and with known functions
Classification code_Functional category
Nr. of the genes included
1_cell envelope and cellular processes
1.7_ Cell division
1.1_ Cell wall
1.4_ Membrane bioenergetics
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.3_ Sensors (signal transduction)
1.6_ Protein secretion
1.2_ Transport/binding proteins and lipoproteins
2.1_Metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules
2.2_ Metabolism of amino acids and related molecules
2.5_ Metabolism of coenzymes and prosthetic groups
2.4_ Metabolism of lipids
2.3_ Metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids
3.3_ DNA recombination
3.1_ DNA replication
3.8_ Protein modification
3.7_ Protein synthesis
3.6_ RNA modification
3.5_ RNA synthesis
4.1_ Adaptation to atypical conditions
4.4_ Phage-related functions
4.3_ Antibiotic production
i) The transcription of 46 genes involved in carbon and nitrogen utilization was altered in response to root exudates, with 43 of them being up-regulated. These 46 genes were involved in different aspects of the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and related metabolites. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their relevance in the metabolic context, the genes were mapped into the KEGG pathway and a representation of metabolic pathways was constructed (Figure 6). A total of 12 genes encoding enzymes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway (including pgi encoding for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and the TCA cycle were significantly up-regulated. These genes covered almost the entire glycolysis and TCA pathway. Nearly a quarter of the genes with altered transcription (46 out of 189) were involved in uptake or utilization of nutrients. This observation corroborated that root exudates serve as energy sources in the interaction between roots and rhizobacteria.
Among the up-regulated genes, glvA glvC and glvR showed the highest fold change (glvA: 5.2-fold up-regulated, glvC: 2.5-fold up-regulated, glvR: 4.4-fold up-regulated). The enhancement of glvA expression was also validated by real-time PCR as well as by the proteomic data (unpublished). The three genes comprise the glv operon (glvA-glvR-glvC), which is responsible for maltose dissimilation and positively regulated by maltose . The significant up-regulation of these genes indicated that maltose was present in the exudates, which was confirmed by the HPLC analysis (Figure 1).
The genes involved in inositol metabolism (iolA, iolB, iolC, iolD, iolE, iolF, iolG, iolI, iolS) were also up-regulated, mainly with a fold change of ≥2.0 (Figure 6). Except iolS, which is involved in the regulation of inositol catabolism, the other eight genes are members of the iol operon. The increased transcription of iolA and iolD was further confirmed by real-time PCR whereas the enhancement of iolB and iolL was validated by a proteomics approach (unpublished data). The activation of nine genes indicated the presence of inositol in the exudates, which has also been verified by HPLC.
FZB42 genes significantly induced by maize root exudates and involved in mobility and chemotaxis (Refer to experiment “Response to RE”: E-MEXP-3421)
Classification code_function involved
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.5_ Mobility and chemotaxis
1.3_ Sensors (signal transduction)
1.3_ Sensors (signal transduction)
Biofilm formation has been documented to be involved in directing or modulating efficient colonization by PGPR [39, 40]. Biofilms can also provide the plant root system with a protective barrier against attack of pathogenic microbes . Two B. amyloliquefaciens genes involved in biofilm formation, ycmA and luxS, were enhanced by maize root exudates (Table 2, Additional file 1: Table S1). The gene luxS, required for synthesis of the quorum-sensing signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) , is involved in biofilm formation of pathogenic Streptococcus species [42–44] and the probiotic B. subtilis natto . The gene ycmA has also been indentified to be involved in facilitating biofilm formation [46, 47]. The increased transcription of luxS and ycmA indicated that biofilm formation of FZB42 could be enhanced by some compounds present in root exudates.
FZB42 genes which were significantly induced by maize root exudates and involved in antibiotic production (Refer to experiment “Response to RE”: E-MEXP-3421)
malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier protein] transacylase BaeE
polyketide synthase BaeL
hybrid NRPS/PKS BaeN
polyketide synthase BaeR
modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnJ
modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnI
modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnG
modular polyketide synthase of type I DfnF
polyketide synthase of type I MlnH
fengycin synthetase FenE
surfactin synthetase D SrfAD
surfactin synthetase C SrfAC
Another two genes, mlnH and fenE, were also induced, which are known to participate in non-ribosmal biosynthesis of macrolactin and fengycin, respectively. Macrolactin, a polyketide product found in FZB42, has activity against some Gram-positive bacteria , while fengycin can act against phytopathogenic fungi in a synergistic manner with bacillomycin D [19, 51].
In addition, two genes encoding surfactin synthetase were also activated by root exudates (Table 3). Surfactin is one of Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides, displaying antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Arabidopsis it has been shown that the ability of Bacillus to synthesize surfactin can reduce the invasion of Pseudomonas syringae. although it is not yet clear whether the protective effect resulted directly from the antibacterial activity of surfactin or from its biofilm-related properties. Surfactin is crucially involved in the motility of Bacillus by reducing surface tensions [36, 37, 52] and contributing to biofilm formation on Arabidopsis roots . It has also been demonstrated that surfactin production of FZB42 was enhanced when colonizing the duckweed plant Lemna minor . It can be expected that up-regulation of srfAC and srfAD may contribute to the protective role of surfactin against plant pathogens.
The regulated genes with putative function
Among the 302 genes significantly altered in transcription by root exudates, 44 were annotated to encode a putative enzyme or a hypothetical protein. Similar to the genes with known function, these 44 genes fell into three categories: metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules, metabolism of amino acids and related molecules, and transport/binding proteins and lipoproteins (Additional file 1: Table S2). Some of the 44 genes were closely associated with plant-microbe interactions. For example, the transcription of ydjL, nowadays renamed bdhA, encoding acetoin reductase/butanediol dehydrogenase , was 1.5-fold enhanced by root exudates. 2, 3-Butanediol is a volatile organic compound released by PGPR and able to promote significantly plant growth . The expression of the gene epsE, residing in a 15-gene operon epsA-O, was also enhanced by root exudates. EpsE is involved in formation of biofilm by arresting flagellar rotation of cells embedded in biofilm matrix . Another activated gene was dfnY, which encodes a hypothetical protein. Like other induced genes known to be involved in antibiotic production such as dfnF dfnG dfnI and dfnJ (Table 3), dfnY is part of the gene cluster responsible for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic difficidin. It is worth mentioning that antibiotic production is energetically very costly and its strict control is a clear evolutionary advantage.
In contrast to a few genes significantly altered during the exponential phase (OD1.0), hundreds of genes were differentially expressed in presence of root exudates during transition to stationary growth phase (OD3.0). Such a difference may not be surprising. The transcription of most bacterial genes during the exponential growth phase is typically initiated by RNA polymerase holoenzyme carrying the housekeeping transcription factor σA, while in the stationary phase, transcription is mainly accomplished by RNAP carrying alternative sigma factors allowing to adapt to a permanently changing environment. The extracytoplasmic-function (ECF) sigma factor W was enhanced in presence of root-exudate (Figure 5). SigW is known as being expressed in early stationary growth-phase and induced by various cell wall antibiotics, alkaline shock, and other stresses affecting the cell envelope. It controls a large “antibiosis” regulon involved in mediating resistance to various antibiotics including fosfomycin and the antibiotic peptides sublancin and SdpC . It has been observed that many virulence-associated factors influence the colonization, persistence and spreading mechanisms of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes in a growth phase-dependent manner [57–59]. Likewise, rhizobacteria may employ an early stationary phase-related mechanism to favor expression of those genes that mediate rhizosphere competence.
Effect of soil extract
FZB42 genes repressed by soil extract at OD3.0 (Refer to experiment “Response to SE”: E-MEXP-3551)
hypothetical protein YpeQ
iron-sulfur cofactor synthesis protein nifU homolog YurV
inositol utilization protein S (IolS)
metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules
conserved hypothetical protein YaaA
alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (large subunit) and NADH dehydrogenase AhpF
Effect of exudates prepared from maize plants colonized by FZB42
Typically, most root exudates studied were collected from plants grown in axenic systems. The release of root exudates is not only determined by the plant species, but also by plant age, physiological status, and the biotic environment that plants thrive including the rhizosphere microflora that influence the composition and quantity of root exudates [60–66]. It was reported that P. aeruginosa produces N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling compounds that induce changes in the root exudation of Medicago truncatula [. Exudate compounds that are specifically induced or repressed by rhizobacteria may in turn affect bacterial gene expression. Such an effect cannot be demonstrated using root exudates collected from a gnotobiotic system, therefore, a batch of “interaction exudates (IE)” was collected from maize roots which were previously inoculated with FZB42.
The transcriptional responses of FZB42 to the IE were compared with responses to the root exudates (RE) collected from axenic culture. No significant differences (q ≤ 0.01 and FCH ≥ 1.5) were found between the effect of IE and RE at OD1.0, while four genes were differentially expressed at OD3.0 (Additional file 2: Table S5). When a less stringent selection filter was applied (q ≤ 0.05 and FCH ≥ 1.5), a total of nine genes were differentially expressed (Additional file 2: Table S5). The four genes, significantly enhanced in presence of FZB42 at maize roots, encode enzymes involved in the degradation of macromolecules or cellular compounds, such as ggt, nprE, clpP, RBAM00438 (ycsN). Among all four genes, expression of the ggt gene was found most enhanced, bearing a fold change of 2.2 in presence of the rhizobacterium (Additional file 2: Table S5). GGT, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the hydrolysis of γ-glutamyl compounds, such as glutathione (GSH), and the transfer of γ-glutamyl moieties to amino acids and peptides. The nprE gene, which is mainly expressed during early stationary phase, encodes extracellular neutral protease involved in degradation of proteins and peptides. The peptidase ClpP, encoded by the clpP gene, can associate with the ATPases ClpC, ClpE, and ClpX, thereby forming a substrate specific channel for several regulatory proteins directing spore formation or genetic competence in bacilli. RBAM00438 is a member of the aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) superfamily of soluble NAD(P)(H) oxidoreductases whose chief purpose is to reduce aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols. At present, it remains questionable if those gene products are linked with any specific process triggered by the IE. The number of the genes obtained was much less than expected. We conclude that possible differences between the transcriptome responses to these two exudate samples are either very rare or too subtle to be revealed sufficiently by two-color microarrays.
One drawback of the present investigation is that some effects of the root exudates may have been masked by components of the 1 C medium and therefore did not result in altered gene expression. On the other hand, using 0.25 mg exudates per ml medium, some components in the exudates may have been diluted to a level at which they no longer show detectable effect on bacterial gene expression. It has been reported that the rhizosphere is a very heterogeneous soil volume, with some regions being “hotspots” of root exudation and bacterial colonization. In natural environments, bacterial populations are likely to be exposed to different concentration of exudates along the root axis [68, 69].
It needs to be mentioned that the exudates used in this study were a pooled mixture of the samples collected within seven days from maize roots (see Methods). It has not yet been described to which extent the composition of root exudates is affected by the developmental stage of a plant  and therefore the presented bacterial responses cannot be assigned to a particular physiological state of the host plant. This question may be addressed by performing bacterial transcriptome analyses in response to exudates collected at different time points during plant development. Such an approach may be helpful to elucidate the progression of the plant-bacteria association during the plant development.
In summary, this microarray work reflects the interactions between a Gram-positive rhizobacterium and its host plant in a genome-scale perspective. Critical target genes and pathways for further investigations of the interaction were identified. Given the limited reports on transcriptomic analysis of rhizobacteria in response to their host plants [13–15], the results provided a valuable insight into PGPR behaviour in the rhizosphere. About 10% of the total number of genes were found up-regulated in presence of root exudate during transition to stationary growth phase. In addition to the findings corroborating previous transcriptome analyses performed in Gram-negative bacteria, we could demonstrate that presence of root exudate induced expression of numerous genes involved in non-ribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites with antifungal and antibacterial action. We hypothesize that competitive colonization at plant root surfaces by FZB42 might be supported by enhanced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds.
Using the data from six independent micro array experiments, differentially transcribed genes of the PGPR B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 were identified and their known or putative functions were related to their associative behavior with regard to interactions with maize roots. A large group of genes specifically expressed suggested that root exudates serve primarily as a source of carbon and energy for FZB42. Another group of genes significantly induced by plant root exudates encode the non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. It is possible that enhanced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds might suppress the competing phytopathogenic organisms growing within the plant rhizosphere. However, direct evidence for occurrence of those compounds in vicinity of plant rhizosphere remains to be accomplished. The addition of soil extracts to the growth medium showed no major effect on gene expression of FZB42. Similarly, the results obtained with the “interaction exudates” collected from the maize roots inoculated with FZB42 did not indicate altered effects on gene expression compared with that of common root exudates collected in the gnotobiotic system.
Root exudates collection and analysis
Maize seeds (Saaten-Union, Germany) were surface-sterilized and germinated as described previously . Root exudates were collected from the maize seedlings grown in an axenic system with sterile water (1:1 distilled water and tap water, v/v). Forty germinated seeds harboring a main root of at least 2 cm length were transferred into test tubes filled with 2 ml of autoclaved water, with the maize seeds being placed just above the water surface. The tubes were kept under sterile conditions and maintained in a plant growth room (16-h light/8-h dark) at 24°C for 8 days. In the first two days, water was supplemented to the tubes, and seedlings were pulled to a higher position to ensure that the maize seeds were always above the water surface as the roots elongated. From the third day on, the water containing the exudates was collected and the tubes were refilled with sterile water. Sampling was performed every day until the eighth day after transferring the seedlings. Each collection were kept separate, from which a 100 μL aliquot was taken and spread on a solid LB media to check for contamination. The contaminated samples were discarded.
To collect the “interaction exudates (IE)”, the germinated maize seeds were inoculated with FZB42 as described previously  before transferring the test tubes. Afterward the maize was grown and the exudates were prepared in the same way as described above.
The collected exudates were pooled, freeze-dried and stored at −20°C. Before use, the lyophilized exudates were weighted, and dissolved in a certain volume of distilled water. The obtained exudates solution was centrifuged to remove any insoluble constituents. The supernatant was filter-sterilized and the resulting stock exudates were stored in dark at −80°C. The final concentration of the exudates in the culture vessel was generally adjusted to 0.25 g L-1. Chemical analysis of the root exudates was performed as described previously : amino acids were determined using a Shimadzu HPLC system. 40 μL samples were derivatized with 160 μl OPA (o-phthaldialdehyde) reagent and 20 μL of the resulting mixture were injected and separated on a GROM-SIL OPA-3 column using solvent gradient elution by solvent A (25 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2 with 0.75% tetrahydrofuran) and solvent B (methanol to acetonitrile to 25 mM phosphate buffer 7.2 [35 : 15 : 50/v : v : v]). Gradient profile: 0–2 min, 0% B; 2–10 min, 0%-50% B; 10–15 min, 50–60% B; 15–20 min, 60–100% B; 20–25 min, 100% B; 25–26 min, 100%-0% B; 26–35 min, 0% B. The flow-rate was 1 mL min-1. Subsequent fluorescence detection of the derivatives was performed at an excitation wavelength of 330 nm and 450 nm. Organic acids were determined by means of ion chromatography (Dionex IonPac AS 11 HC column) using a gradient ranging from 4 mM to 80 mM KOH. Organic acids were identified by comparison of retention time with known standards. Sugars were determined by GC-TOF-MS. A lyophilized 75 μL aliquot of root exudates was dissolved in 50 mL methoxyamine hydrochloride in dry pyrididine and derivatized for 2 h at 37°C followed by 30 min. treatment with 50 μL N-methyl-N-trifluoroacetamide at 37°C. A volume of 1 μL was injected into the GC column.
The Bam4kOLI microarray was designed based on the sequenced complete genome of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42  (Additional file 3: Table S6). The array contained 3931 50-70mer oligonucleotides representing predicted protein-encoding genes and a set of small non-coding RNA genes of FZB42. In addition, the array included stringency controls with 71%, 80% and 89% identity to the native sequences of five genes, dnaA rpsL rpsO rpsP, and rpmI, to monitor the extent of cross hybridization. The array also contained alien DNA oligonucleotides for four antibiotic resistance genes (Em r Cm r Nm r and Spc r ) and eight spiking controls as well as one empty control (nothing spotted). All oligonucleotide probes were printed in four replicates. Microarrays were produced and processed as described previously .
Oligonucleotides were designed using the Oligo Designer software (Bioinformatics Resource Facility, CeBiTec, Bielefeld University). Melting temperatures of the oligonucleotides were calculated based on %GC and oligo length, ranging from 73°C to 83°C (optimal 78°C). Salt concentration was set to 0.1 M. QGramMatch was used to analyse uniqueness of the oligos.
The experiment designs of FZB42 in response to various conditions are summarized in Additional file 3: Table S6. Independent experiments were used as biological replicates. In all comparisons dye-swap were carried out to minimize the effect of dye biases.
1 C medium (0.7% w/v pancreatic digest of casein, 0.3% w/v papain digest of soya flour, 0.5% w/v NaCl) containing 0.1% glucose was used in all experiments. Except the controls of the experiment “Response to SE” (Additional file 3: Table S6), 10% soil extract was also supplemented in the media. Soil extract was prepared by extracting 500 g dried, fertile garden soil with one litre distilled water for 2 hrs and autoclaving. After cooling down, the supernatant was filtered with 0.22 μm Nuclepore unit and then stored at 4°C until use.
Total RNA preparation
One overnight colony of FZB42 was inoculated into 1 C medium plus 0.1% glucose and then shaken at 210 rpm at 24°C. After 14 hours the obtained preculture was used to inoculate a new 1 C medium (containing 0.1% glucose) plus the corresponding solution to be studied (maize root exudates, soil extract, or interaction exudates. See Additional file 3: Table S6). The main cultures were grown at 24°C until they reached late exponential growth phase (OD 1.0) and/or the transition to stationary phase (OD3.0, see Additional file 4: Figure S1).
The FZB42 cells of OD1.0 or OD3.0 were harvested for preparation of total RNA. A volume of 15 ml of the culture was mixed with 7.5 ml “killing buffer” (20 mM Tris–HCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 20 mM NaN3, pH 7.5) and then centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 3 minutes at room temperature. The pellet was washed once more with 1 ml “killing buffer” and then immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen cell pellets were stored at −80°C until RNA isolation.
Isolation of RNA was performed using the Nucleo Spin® RNA L (Macherey Nagel) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The isolated RNA was additionally digested with DNaseI to avoid possible trace DNA contamination. After ethanol precipitation RNA pellets were resuspended in 300 μl RNase-free water. The concentration of total RNA was spectrophotometrically determined, whereas its quality was checked on a 1.5% RNA agarose gel in 1 × MEN buffer (20 mM MOPS; 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM NaAc; pH7.0) with 16% formaldehyde.
Synthesis of labeled cDNA, hybridization and image acquisition
Synthesis of first-strand cDNA, microarray hybridization and image acquisition were performed in CeBiTec, the Center for Biotechnology at Bielefeld University. Briefly, aminoallyl-modified first-strand cDNAs were synthesized by reverse transcription according to DeRisi et al . and then coupled with Cy3- and Cy5-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK). After hybridization using the HS4800 hybridization station (Tecan Trading AG, Switzerland), slides were scanned with a pixel size of 10 μm using the LS Reloaded microarray scanner (Tecan Trading AG, Switzerland).
The microarray data obtained was analysed by using the EMMA 2.8.2 software . The mean signal intensity (Ai) was calculated for each spot using the formula Ai = log2(RiGi)0.5. Ri = Ich1(i) − Bgch1(i) and Gi = Ich2(i) − Bgch2(i), where Ich1(i) or Ich2(i) is the intensity of a spot in channel 1 or channel 2, and Bgch1(i) or Bgch2(i) is the background intensity of a spot in channel1 or channel 2, respectively. The log2 value of the ratio of signal intensities (Mi) was calculated for each spot using the formula Mi = log2(Ri/Gi). Spots were flagged as “empty” if R ≤ 0.5 in both channels, where R = (signal mean–background mean)/background standard deviation . The raw data were normalized by the method of LOWESS (locally weighted scattered plot smoothing). A significance test was performed by the method of false discovery rate (FDR) control and the adjusted p-value defined by FDR was called q-value [77, 78].
An arbitrary cutoff, fold change (FCH) greater than 1.5, was applied to the genes with a q-value of ≤0.01. Only those genes which meet both filter conditions (q ≤ 0.01 & FCH ≥ 1.5) were regarded to be significantly differentially expressed.
The first-strand cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription with RevertAidTM Premium Reverse Transcriptase (Fermentas, St. Leon-Rot, Germany), using random hexamers as primers. Oligonucleotide primers were designed by the software PrimerExpress and listed in supplemental materials (Additional files 1: Table S4). Real-time PCR was performed with SYBR® Green PCR Master Mix kit (Carlsbad, California, USA) using 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System (Carlsbad, California, USA) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. As an internal control, the housekeeping gene gyrA was used as its expression was not significantly altered in all microarray experiments. Three technical replicates were carried out for each target gene. Quantification was analysed based on the threshold cycle (Ct) values as described by Pfaffl .
The raw data of the Micro-array experiments, described here, are available in the ArrayExpress database under the accession numbers: E-MEXP-3421, E-MEXP-3550, E-MEXP-3551, E-MEXP-3553, E-MEXP-3554, respectively (see also Additional file 3: Table S6).
The financial support for FB by the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31100081) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) is gratefully acknowledged, as well as, the financial support given to RB in-frame of the competence network Genome Research on Bacteria (GenoMikPlus, GenoMikTransfer) and of the Chinese-German collaboration program by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). This study was further supported by the EU-FP6-funded project RHIBAC. We are very indebted to Birgit Baumgarth, Computational Genomics, Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec), Bielefeld University for performing later hybridisation experiments and support in data processing. We also would like to thank Anne Pohlmann for the excellent assistance in the real-time experiments.
- Lugtenberg BJJ, Kamilova F: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009, 63: 541-556. 10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307.162918.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kloepper JW, Schroth MN: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. Proc of the 4th Internat Conf on Plant Pathogenic Bacter. 1978, INRA, Angers, FranceGoogle Scholar
- Domenech J, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW, Ramos B, Gutierrez-Manero J: Combined application of the biological product LS213 with Bacillus, Pseudomonas or Chryseobacterium for growth promotion and biological control of soil-borne diseases in pepper and tomato. BioControl. 2006, 51 (2): 245-258. 10.1007/s10526-005-2940-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alabouvette C, Olivain C, Migheli Q, Steinberg C: Microbiological control of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi with special emphasis on wilt-inducing Fusarium oxysporum. New Phytol. 2009, 184 (3): 529-544. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03014.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dessaux Y, Ryan PR, Thomashow LS, Weller DM: Rhizosphere engineering and management for sustainable agriculture. Plant Soil. 2009, 321 (1–2): 363-383.Google Scholar
- Somers E, Vanderleyden J, Srinivasan M: Rhizosphere bacterial signalling: a love parade beneath our feet. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2004, 30 (4): 205-240. 10.1080/10408410490468786.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oger P, Petit A, Dessaux Y: Genetically engineered plants producing opines alter their biological environment. Nat Biotech. 1997, 15 (4): 369-372. 10.1038/nbt0497-369.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rudrappa T, Czymmek KJ, Pare PW, Bais HP: Root-secreted malic acid recruits beneficial soil bacteria. Plant Physiol. 2008, 148 (3): 1547-1556. 10.1104/pp.108.127613.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Micallef SA, Shiaris MP, Colon-Carmona A: Influence of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions on rhizobacterial communities and natural variation in root exudates. J Exp Bot. 2009, 60 (6): 1729-1742. 10.1093/jxb/erp053.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Badri DV, Vivanco JM: Regulation and function of root exudates. Plant Cell Environ. 2009, 32 (6): 666-681. 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.01926.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shi S, Richardson AE, O'Callaghan M, DeAngelis KM, Jones EE, Stewart A, Firestone MK, Condron LM: Effects of selected root exudate components on soil bacterial communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011, 77 (3): 600-610. 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01150.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Diehn M, Relman DA: Comparing functional genomic datasets: lessons from DNA microarray analyses of host-pathogen interactions. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001, 4 (1): 95-101. 10.1016/S1369-5274(00)00171-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mark GL, Dow JM, Kiely PD, Higgins H, Haynes J, Baysse C, Abbas A, Foley T, Franks A, Morrissey J, et al: Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005, 102 (48): 17454-17459. 10.1073/pnas.0506407102.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matilla M, Espinosa-Urgel M, Rodriguez-Herva J, Ramos J, Ramos-Gonzalez M: Genomic analysis reveals the major driving forces of bacterial life in the rhizosphere. Genome Biol. 2007, 8 (9): R179-10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r179.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramachandran VK, East AK, Karunakaran R, Downie JA, Poole PS: Adaptation of Rhizobium leguminosarum to pea, alfalfa and sugar beet rhizospheres investigated by comparative transcriptomics. Genome Biol. 2011, 12 (10): R106-10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-r106.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bashan Y, Holguin G, de-Bashan LE: Azospirillum-plant relationships: physiological, molecular, agricultural, and environmental advances (1997–2003). Can J Microbiol. 2004, 50 (8): 521-577. 10.1139/w04-035.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steenhoudt O, Vanderleyden J: Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2000, 24 (4): 487-506. 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00552.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elizabeth ABE, Jo H: Biocontrol of plant disease: a (Gram-) positive perspective. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999, 171 (1): 1-9. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13405.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen XH, Koumoutsi A, Scholz R, Borriss R: More than anticipated - production of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009, 16 (1–2): 14-24.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Idris EE, Iglesias DJ, Talon M, Borriss R: Tryptophan-dependent production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) affects level of plant growth promotion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007, 20 (6): 619-626. 10.1094/MPMI-20-6-0619.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fan B, Chen XH, Budiharjo A, Bleiss W, Vater J, Borriss R: Efficient colonization of plant roots by the plant growth promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, engineered to express green fluorescent protein. J Biotechnol. 2011, 151 (4): 303-311. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.12.022.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lugtenberg BJJ, Dekkers LC, Bloemberg GV: Molecular determinants of rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2001, 39: 461-490. 10.1146/annurev.phyto.39.1.461.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lugtenberg BJJ, Dekkers LC: What makes Pseudomonas bacteria rhizosphere competent?. Environ Microbiol. 1999, 1 (1): 9-13. 10.1046/j.1462-2920.1999.00005.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simons M, van der Bij AJ, Brand I, de Weger LA, Wijffelman CA, Lugtenberg BJ: Gnotobiotic system for studying rhizosphere colonization by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas bacteria. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1996, 9 (7): 600-607. 10.1094/MPMI-9-0600.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kraffczyk I, Trolldenier G, Beringer H: Soluble root exudates of maize: Influence of potassium supply and rhizosphere microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem. 1984, 16 (4): 315-322. 10.1016/0038-0717(84)90025-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dennis PG, Miller AJ, Hirsch PR: Are root exudates more important than other sources of rhizodeposits in structuring rhizosphere bacterial communities?. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010, 72 (3): 313-327. 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00860.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen XH, Koumoutsi A, Scholz R, Eisenreich A, Schneider K, Heinemeyer I, Morgenstern B, Voss B, Hess WR, Reva O, et al: Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Nat Biotechnol. 2007, 25 (9): 1007-1014. 10.1038/nbt1325.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moszer I, Jones LM, Moreira S, Fabry C, Danchin A: SubtiList: the reference database for the Bacillus subtilis genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30 (1): 62-65. 10.1093/nar/30.1.62.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamamoto H, Serizawa M, Thompson J, Sekiguchi J: Regulation of the glv operon in Bacillus subtilis: YfiA (GlvR) is a positive regulator of the operon that is repressed through CcpA and cre. J Bacteriol. 2001, 183 (17): 5110-5121. 10.1128/JB.183.17.5110-5121.2001.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bais HP, Fall R, Vivanco JM: Biocontrol of Bacillus subtilis against infection of Arabidopsis roots by Pseudomonas syringae is facilitated by biofilm formation and surfactin production. Plant Physiol. 2004, 134 (1): 307-319. 10.1104/pp.103.028712.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- de Weert S, Vermeiren H, Mulders IH, Kuiper I, Hendrickx N, Bloemberg GV, Vanderleyden J, De Mot R, Lugtenberg BJ: Flagella-driven chemotaxis towards exudate components is an important trait for tomato root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2002, 15 (11): 1173-1180. 10.1094/MPMI.2002.15.11.1173.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Weert S, Kuiper I, Lagendijk EL, Lamers GE, Lugtenberg BJ: Role of chemotaxis toward fusaric acid in colonization of hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004, 17 (11): 1185-1191. 10.1094/MPMI.2004.17.11.1185.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O'Sullivan DJ, O'Gara F: Traits of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. involved in suppression of plant root pathogens. Microbiol Rev. 1992, 56 (4): 662-676.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Walsh UF, Morrissey JP, O'Gara F: Pseudomonas for biocontrol of phytopathogens: from functional genomics to commercial exploitation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001, 12 (3): 289-295. 10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00212-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ongena M, Jacques P: Bacillus lipopeptides: versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol. Trends Microbiol. 2008, 16 (3): 115-125. 10.1016/j.tim.2007.12.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I, de Kock MJ: Cyclic lipopeptide production by plant-associated Pseudomonas spp.: diversity, activity, biosynthesis, and regulation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006, 19 (7): 699-710. 10.1094/MPMI-19-0699.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Daniels R, Vanderleyden J, Michiels J: Quorum sensing and swarming migration in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2004, 28 (3): 261-289. 10.1016/j.femsre.2003.09.004.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Capdevila S, Martinez-Granero FM, Sanchez-Contreras M, Rivilla R, Martin M: Analysis of Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 genes implicated in flagellar filament synthesis and their role in competitive root colonization. Microbiology. 2004, 150 (Pt 11): 3889-3897.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Combes-Meynet E, Pothier JF, Moenne-Loccoz Y, Prigent-Combaret C: The Pseudomonas secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol is a signal inducing rhizoplane expression of Azospirillum genes involved in plant-growth promotion. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010, 24 (2): 271-284.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramey BE, Koutsoudis M, Bodman SBv, Fuqua C: Biofilm formation in plant-microbe associations. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004, 7 (6): 602-609. 10.1016/j.mib.2004.10.014.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Surette MG, Miller MB, Bassler BL: Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio harveyi: a new family of genes responsible for autoinducer production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999, 96 (4): 1639-1644. 10.1073/pnas.96.4.1639.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heilmann C, Schweitzer O, Gerke C, Vanittanakom N, Mack D, Gotz F: Molecular basis of intercellular adhesion in the biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mol Microbiol. 1996, 20 (5): 1083-1091. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1996.tb02548.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gotz F: Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol Microbiol. 2002, 43 (6): 1367-1378. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.02827.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang Z, Meric G, Liu Z, Ma R, Tang Z, Lejeune P: luxS-based quorum-sensing signaling affects Biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009, 17 (1): 12-19. 10.1159/000159193.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lombardia E, Rovetto AJ, Arabolaza AL, Grau RR: A LuxS-dependent cell-to-cell language regulates social behavior and development in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2006, 188 (12): 4442-4452. 10.1128/JB.00165-06.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Branda SS, Gonzalez-Pastor JE, Dervyn E, Ehrlich SD, Losick R, Kolter R: Genes involved in formation of structured multicellular communities by Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2004, 186 (12): 3970-3979. 10.1128/JB.186.12.3970-3979.2004.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kearns DB, Chu F, Branda SS, Kolter R, Losick R: A master regulator for biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 2005, 55 (3): 739-749.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen XH, Koumoutsi A, Scholz R, Schneider K, Vater J, Sussmuth R, Piel J, Borriss R: Genome analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 reveals its potential for biocontrol of plant pathogens. J Biotechnol. 2009, 140 (1–2): 27-37.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen XH, Scholz R, Borriss M, Junge H, Mogel G, Kunz S, Borriss R: Difficidin and bacilysin produced by plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are efficient in controlling fire blight disease. J Biotechnol. 2009, 140 (1–2): 38-44.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schneider K, Chen XH, Vater J, Franke P, Nicholson G, Borriss R, Sussmuth RD: Macrolactin is the polyketide biosynthesis product of the pks2 cluster of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. J Nat Prod. 2007, 70 (9): 1417-1423. 10.1021/np070070k.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koumoutsi A, Chen XH, Henne A, Liesegang H, Hitzeroth G, Franke P, Vater J, Borriss R: Structural and functional characterization of gene clusters directing nonribosomal synthesis of bioactive cyclic lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42. J Bacteriol. 2004, 186 (4): 1084-1096. 10.1128/JB.186.4.1084-1096.2004.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leclere V, Marti R, Bechet M, Fickers P, Jacques P: The lipopeptides mycosubtilin and surfactin enhance spreading of Bacillus subtilis strains by their surface-active properties. Arch Microbiol. 2006, 186 (6): 475-483. 10.1007/s00203-006-0163-z.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nicholson WL: The Bacillus subtilis ydjL (bdhA) gene encodes acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008, 74 (22): 6832-6838. 10.1128/AEM.00881-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ryu CM, Farag MA, Hu CH, Reddy MS, Wei HX, Pare PW, Kloepper JW: Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003, 100 (8): 4927-4932. 10.1073/pnas.0730845100.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blair KM, Turner L, Winkelman JT, Berg HC, Kearns DB: A molecular clutch disables flagella in the Bacillus subtilis biofilm. Science. 2008, 320 (5883): 1636-1638. 10.1126/science.1157877.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mascher T, Hachmann AB, Helmann JD: Regulatory overlap and functional redundancy among Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors. J Bacteriol. 2007, 189 (19): 6919-6927. 10.1128/JB.00904-07.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kreikemeyer B, McIver KS, Podbielski A: Virulence factor regulation and regulatory networks in Streptococcus pyogenes and their impact on pathogen-host interactions. Trends Microbiol. 2003, 11 (5): 224-232. 10.1016/S0966-842X(03)00098-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beyer-Sehlmeyer G, Kreikemeyer B, Horster A, Podbielski A: Analysis of the growth phase-associated transcriptome of Streptococcus pyogenes. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005, 295 (3): 161-177. 10.1016/j.ijmm.2005.02.010.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaussee MA, Dmitriev AV, Callegari EA, Chaussee MS: Growth phase-associated changes in the transcriptome and proteome of Streptococcus pyogenes. Arch Microbiol. 2008, 189 (1): 27-41.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wieland G, Neumann R, Backhaus H: Variation of microbial communities in soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane in response to crop species, soil type, and crop development. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001, 67 (12): 5849-5854. 10.1128/AEM.67.12.5849-5854.2001.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Buyer JS, Roberts DP, Russek-Cohen E: Soil and plant effects on microbial community structure. Can J Microbiol. 2002, 48 (11): 955-964. 10.1139/w02-095.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kowalchuk GA, Buma DS, de Boer W, Klinkhamer PG, van Veen JA: Effects of above-ground plant species composition and diversity on the diversity of soil-borne microorganisms. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 2002, 81 (1–4): 509-520.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Broeckling CD, Broz AK, Bergelson J, Manter DK, Vivanco JM: Root exudates regulate soil fungal community composition and diversity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008, 74 (3): 738-744. 10.1128/AEM.02188-07.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuzyakov Y, Raskatov A, Kaupenjohann M: Turnover and distribution of root exudates of Zea mays. Plant Soil. 2003, 254 (2): 317-327. 10.1023/A:1025515708093.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang CH, Crowley DE: Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000, 66 (1): 345-351. 10.1128/AEM.66.1.345-351.2000.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y, Ohara Y, Nakayashiki H, Tosa Y, Mayama S: Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile induced by the endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens FPT9601-T5 in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005, 18 (5): 385-396. 10.1094/MPMI-18-0385.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mathesius U, Mulders S, Gao M, Teplitski M, Caetano-Anolles G, Rolfe BG, Bauer WD: Extensive and specific responses of a eukaryote to bacterial quorum-sensing signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003, 100 (3): 1444-1449. 10.1073/pnas.262672599.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dennis PG, Miller AJ, Hirsch PR: Are root exudates more important than other sources of rhizodeposits in structuring rhizosphere bacterial communities?. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. , 72 (3): 313-327.
- Kuzyakov Y: Priming effects: Interactions between living and dead organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem. 2010, 42 (9): 1363-1371. 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.04.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haichar FZ, Marol C, Berge O, Rangel-Castro JI, Prosser JI, Balesdent J, Heulin T, Achouak W: Plant host habitat and root exudates shape soil bacterial community structure. ISME J. 2008, 2 (12): 1221-1230. 10.1038/ismej.2008.80.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carvalhais LC, Dennis PG, Fedoseyenko D, Hajirezaei MR, Borriss R, von Wiren N: Root exudation of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids by maize as affected by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and iron deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 2011, 174 (1): 3-11. 10.1002/jpln.201000085.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brune I, Becker A, Paarmann D, Albersmeier A, Kalinowski J, Puhler A, Tauch A: Under the influence of the active deodorant ingredient 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, the skin bacterium Corynebacterium jeikeium moderately responds with differential gene expression. J Biotechnol. 2006, 127 (1): 21-33. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2006.06.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DeRisi JL, Iyer VR, Brown PO: Exploring the metabolic and genetic control of gene expression on a genomic scale. Science. 1997, 278 (5338): 680-686. 10.1126/science.278.5338.680.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dondrup M, Albaum SP, Griebel T, Henckel K, Junemann S, Kahlke T, Kleindt CK, Kuster H, Linke B, Mertens D, et al: EMMA 2–a MAGE-compliant system for the collaborative analysis and integration of microarray data. BMC Bioinforma. 2009, 10: 50-10.1186/1471-2105-10-50.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dudoit S, Yang YH, Callow MJ, Speed TP: Statistical methods for identifying differentially expressed genes in replicated cDNA microarray experiments. Stat Sin. 2002, 12 (1): 111-139.Google Scholar
- Serrania J, Vorholter FJ, Niehaus K, Puhler A, Becker A: Identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris galactose utilization genes from transcriptome data. J Biotechnol. 2008, 135 (3): 309-317. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.04.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y: Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological). 1995, 57 (1): 289-300.Google Scholar
- Roberts PC, El-Gewely MR: Gene expression microarray data analysis demystified. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2008, 14: 29-61.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pfaffl MW: A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001, 29 (9): e45-10.1093/nar/29.9.e45.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.