Open Access

Global transcriptome response in Lactobacillus sakei during growth on ribose

  • Anette McLeod1, 2Email author,
  • Lars Snipen2,
  • Kristine Naterstad1 and
  • Lars Axelsson1
BMC Microbiology201111:145

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-145

Received: 9 February 2011

Accepted: 24 June 2011

Published: 24 June 2011

Abstract

Background

Lactobacillus sakei is valuable in the fermentation of meat products and exhibits properties that allow for better preservation of meat and fish. On these substrates, glucose and ribose are the main carbon sources available for growth. We used a whole-genome microarray based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose.

Results

The function of the common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Decreased transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and the L-lactate dehydrogenase was observed, but most of the genes showing differential expression were up-regulated. Especially transcription of genes directly involved in ribose catabolism, the phosphoketolase pathway, and in alternative fates of pyruvate increased. Interestingly, the methylglyoxal synthase gene, which encodes an enzyme unique for L. sakei among lactobacilli, was up-regulated. Ribose catabolism seems closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. The deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator gene was strongly up-regulated, as well as two gene clusters involved in nucleoside catabolism. One of the clusters included a ribokinase gene. Moreover, hprK encoding the HPr kinase/phosphatase, which plays a major role in the regulation of carbon metabolism and sugar transport, was up-regulated, as were genes encoding the general PTS enzyme I and the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman). Putative catabolite-responsive element (cre) sites were found in proximity to the promoter of several genes and operons affected by the change of carbon source. This could indicate regulation by a catabolite control protein A (CcpA)-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism, possibly with the EIIman being indirectly involved.

Conclusions

Our data shows that the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery in L. sakei is highly regulated at the transcription level. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources.

Background

The Lactobacillus sakei species belongs to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), a group of Gram-positive organisms with a low G+C content which produce lactic acid as the main end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, made LAB suitable for production of food. Acidification suppresses the growth and survival of undesirable spoilage bacteria and human pathogens. L. sakei is naturally associated with the meat and fish environment, and is important in the meat industry where it is used as starter culture for sausage fermentation [1, 2]. The bacterium shows great potential as a protective culture and biopreservative to extend storage life and ensure microbial safety of meat and fish products [36]. The genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K has revealed a metabolic repertoire which reflects the bacterium's adaption to meat products and the ability to flexibly use meat components [7]. Only a few carbohydrates are available in meat and fish, and L. sakei can utilize mainly glucose and ribose for growth, a utilization biased in favour of glucose [79]. The species has been observed as a transient member of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) [10, 11], and ribose may be described as a commonly accessible carbon source in the gut environment [12]. Transit through the GIT of axenic mice gave mutant strains which grow faster on ribose compared with glucose [13].

Glucose is primarily transported and phosphorylated by the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS). A phosphorylation cascade is driven from PEP through the general components enzyme I (EI) and the histidine protein (HPr), then via the mannose-specific enzyme II complex (EIIman) to the incoming sugar. Moreover, glucose is fermented through glycolysis leading to lactate [7, 8, 14]. Ribose transport and subsequent phosphorylation are induced by the ribose itself and mediated by a ribose transporter (RbsU), a D-ribose pyranase (RbsD), and a ribokinase (RbsK) encoded by rbsUDK, respectively. These genes form an operon with rbsR which encodes the local repressor RbsR [15, 16]. The phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) is used for pentose fermentation ending with lactate and other end products [8, 17]. L. sakei also has the ability to catabolize arginine, which is abundant in meat, and to catabolize the nucleosides inosine and adenine, a property which is uncommon among lactobacilli [7, 18].

By proteomics, we recently identified proteins involved in ribose catabolism and the PKP to be over-expressed during growth on ribose compared with glucose, while several glycolytic enzymes were less expressed. Moreover, also enzymes involved in pyruvate- and glycerol/glycerolipid metabolism were over-expressed on ribose [19]. Bacteria often use carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in order to control hierarchical utilization of different carbon sources. In low G+C content Gram-positive bacteria, the dominant CCR pathway is mediated by the three main components: (1) catabolite control protein A (CcpA) transcriptional regulator; (2) the histidine protein (HPr); and (3) catabolite-responsive element (cre) DNA sites located in proximity to catabolic genes and operons, which are bound by CcpA [2023]. The HPr protein has diverse regulatory functions in carbon metabolism depending on its phosphorylation state. In response to high throughput through glycolysis, the enzyme is phosphorylated at Ser46 by HPr kinase/phosphorylase (HPrK/P). This gives P-Ser-HPr which can bind to CcpA and convert it into its DNA-binding-competent conformation. However, when the concentration of glycolytic intermediates drop, the HPrK/P dephosphorylates P-Ser-HPr [20, 2224]. Under low glucose concentrations, HPr is phosphorylated by E1 of the PTS at His15 to give P-His-HPr, which has a catalytic function in the PTS and regulatory functions by phosphorylation of catabolic enzymes and transcriptional regulators with a PTS regulation domain (PRD). Several P-EIIBs also phosphorylate different types of non-PTS proteins and regulate their activities [2022]. Evidence for regulatory processes resembling glucose repression was shown both during lactose utilization [25] and catabolism of arginine [26, 27] in L. sakei. A cre site has been reported upstream of the rbs operon [28], thus CcpA could likely be acting on the rbs operon as well as other catabolic genes and operons in this bacterium.

In the present study, we use a microarray representing the L. sakei 23K genome and an additional set of sequenced L. sakei genes, to investigate the global transcriptome response of three L. sakei strains when grown on ribose compared with glucose. Moreover, we predict the frequency of cre sites presumed to be involved in CCR in the L. sakei 23K genome sequence. Our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes between growth on the two sugars, and to increase the understanding of how the primary metabolism is regulated.

Methods

Bacterial strains, media and growth conditions

L. sakei 23K is a plasmid-cured sausage isolate [29], and its complete genome sequence has been published [7]. L. sakei LS 25 is a commercial starter culture strain for salami sausage [30]. L. sakei MF1053 originates from fermented fish (Norwegian "rakfisk") [9]. The strains were maintained at -80°C in MRS broth (Oxoid) supplemented with 20% glycerol. Growth experiments were performed in a defined medium for lactobacilli [31] supplemented with 0.5% glucose (DMLG) or 0.5% ribose + 0.02% glucose (DMLRg) as described previously [19]. Samples were extracted at three different days from independent DMLG and DMLRg cultures from each strain grown at 30°C to mid-exponential phase (OD600 = 0.5-0.6) for a total of three sample sets (parallels).

Microarrays

The microarrays used have been described by Nyquist et al. [32], and a description is available at http://migale.jouy.inra.fr/sakei/Supplement.html/. 70-mer oligonucleotide probes representing the L. sakei strain 23K genome and an additional set of sequenced L. sakei genes were printed in three copies onto epoxy glass slides (Corning).

RNA extraction

Total RNA extraction was performed using the RNeasy Protect Mini Prep Kit (Qiagen) as described by Rud et al. [33]. The concentration and purity of the total RNA was analysed using NanoDrop ND-1000 (NanoDrop Technologies), and the quality using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). Sample criteria for further use in the transcriptome analysis were A260/A280 ratio superior to 1.9 and 23S/16S RNA ratio superior to 1.6.

cDNA synthesis, labeling, and hybridization

cDNA was synthesized and labeled with the Fairplay III Microarray Labeling Kit (Stratagene, Agilent Technologies) as described previously [34]. After labeling, unincorporated dyes were removed from the samples using the QIAQuick PCR purification kit (Qiagen). The following prehybridization, hybridization, washing, and drying of the arrays were performed in a Tecan HS 400 Pro hybridization station (Tecan) as described by Nyquist et al. [32]. For studying the carbon effects, samples from DMLG and DMLRg were co-hybridized for each of the three strains. Separate hybridizations were performed for each strain on all three biological parallels. In order to remove potential biases associated with labelling and subsequent scanning, a replicate hybridization was performed for each strain for one of the three parallels, where the Cy3 and Cy5 dyes (GE Healthcare) used during cDNA synthesis were swapped. The hybridized arrays were scanned at wavelengths 532 nm (Cy3) and 635 nm (Cy5) with a Tecan scanner LS (Tecan). GenePix Pro 6.0 (Molecular Devices) was used for image analysis, and spots were excluded based on slide or morphology abnormalities.

Microarray data analysis

Downstream analysis was done by the Limma package http://www.bioconductor.org in the R computing environment http://www.r-project.org. Pre-processing and normalization followed a standard procedure using methods described by Smyth & Speed [35], and testing for differential expressed genes were done by using a linear mixed model as described by Smyth [36]. A mixed-model approach was chosen to adequately describe between-array variation and still utilize probe-replicates (three replicates of each probe in each array). An empirical Bayes smoothing of gene-wise variances was conducted according to Smyth et al. [37], and for each gene the p-value was adjusted to control the false discovery rate (FDR), hence all p-values displayed are FDR-adjusted (often referred to as q-values in the literature).

Validation of microarray data by qRT-PCR analysis

The microarray results were validated on selected regulated genes for the LS 25 strain by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) performed as described previously [38]. Primers and probes (Additional file 1, Table S3) were designed using Primer Express 3.0 (Applied Biosystems). Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔC T method, using the DNA gyrase subunit alpha gene (gyrA) as the endogenous reference gene.

Microarray accession numbers

The microarray data have been deposited in the Array Express database http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/ under the accession numbers A-MEXP-1166 (array design) and E-MEXP-2892 (experiment).

Sequence analysis

A prediction of cre sites in the L. sakei 23K genome sequence (GeneBank acc. no. CR936503.1), both strands, was performed based on the consensus sequence TGWNANCGNTNWCA (W = A/T, N = A/T/G/C), confirmed in Gram-positive bacteria [39]. We made a search with the consensus sequence described by the regular expression T-G-[AT]-X-A-X-C-G-X-T-X-[AT]-C-A, allowing up to two mismatches in the conserved positions except for the two center position, highlighted in boldface. All computations were done in R http://www.r-project.org.

Results and Discussion

Selection of L. sakeistrains and growth conditions

We have previously investigated L. sakei strain variation [9], and used proteomics to study the bacterium's primary metabolism [19], providing us with a basis for choosing strains with interesting differences for further studies. The starter culture strain LS 25 showed the fastest growth rates in a variety of media, and together with strain MF1053 from fish, it fermented the highest number of carbohydrates [9]. The LS 25 strain belongs to the L. sakei subsp. sakei, whereas the 23K and MF1053 strains belong to L. sakei subsp. carnosus [9, 19]. By identification of differentially expressed proteins caused by the change of carbon source from glucose to ribose, LS 25 seemed to down-regulate the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than other strains during growth on ribose [19]. For these reasons, LS 25 and MF1053 were chosen in addition to 23K for which the microarray is based on. Nyquist et al. [32] recently investigated the genomes of various L. sakei strains compared to the sequenced strain 23K by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) using the same microarray as in the present study. A large part of the 23K genes belongs to a common gene pool invariant in the species, and the status for each gene on the array is known for all the three strains [32].

As glucose is the preferred sugar, L. sakei grows faster when glucose is utilized as the sole carbon source compared with ribose [8, 9, 15]. However, glucose stimulates ribose uptake and a possible co-metabolism of these two sugars present in meat and fish has been suggested, a possibility that give the organism an advantage in competition with other microbiota [15, 16, 40]. To obtain comparable 2-DE gels between samples issued from bacteria grown on the two carbohydrates in our recent proteomic analysis, growth on ribose was enhanced by adding small amounts of glucose [19]. For the present transcriptome analysis we therefore chose the same growth conditions.

Global gene expression patterns

A microarray representing the L. sakei 23K genome and an additional set of sequenced L. sakei genes was used for studying the effect of carbon source on the transcriptome of L. sakei strains 23K, MF1053 and LS 25. Genes displaying a significant differential expression with a log2 ratio > 0.5 or < -0.5 were classified into functional categories according to the L. sakei 23K genome database http://migale.jouy.inra.fr/sakei/genome-server and are listed in Table 1. The 23K strain showed differential expression for 364 genes within these limits, MF1053 and LS 25 for 223 and 316 genes, respectively. Among these, 88, 47 and 82, respectively, were genes belonging to the category of genes of 'unknown' function. Eighty three genes, the expression of which varied depending on the carbon source, were common to the three strains, among which 52 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated during growth on ribose (Figure 1). The function of these common regulated genes was mostly related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism (34 genes, Table 1). The reliability of the microarray results was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis using selected regulated genes in the LS 25 strain. As shown in Table S4 in the additional material (Additional file 1), the qRT-PCR results were in agreement with the data obtained by the microarrays.
Table 1

Genes with significant differential expression in three L. sakei strains grown on ribose compared with glucose, FDR adjusted p-value less than 0.01 and log2 of > 0.5 or < -0.5 (log2 values > 1.0 or < -1.0 are shown in bold).

Gene locus

Gene

Description

23K

MF1053

LS 25

Carbohydrate transport and metabolism

Transport/binding of carbohydrates

LSA0185*

galP

Galactose:cation symporter

1.2

 

1.7

LSA0200*

rbsU

Ribose transport protein

2.8

3.5

4.3

LSA0353*

lsa0353

Putative cellobiose-specific PTS, enzyme IIB

3.6

1.3

2.5

LSA0449*

manL

Mannose-specific PTS, enzyme IIAB

2.1

2.5

1.5

LSA0450*

manN

Mannose-specific PTS, enzyme IIC

1.9

2.0

1.4

LSA0451*

manM

Mannose-specific PTS, enzyme IID

2.4

1.0

2.1

LSA0651*

glpF

Glycerol uptake facilitator protein, MIP family

3.4

4.7

3.4

LSA1050*

fruA

Fructose-specific PTS, enzyme IIABC

  

0.9

LSA1204*

lsa1204

Putative sugar transporter

 

1.1

 

LSA1457*

lsa1457

Putative cellobiose-specific PTS, enzyme IIC

 

2.3

 

LSA1462*

ptsI

PTS, enzyme I

0.8

1.7

0.9

LSA1463*

ptsH

Phosphocarrier protein HPr (histidine protein)

 

1.2

0.9

LSA1533

lsa1533

Putative cellobiose-specific PTS, enzyme IIA

 

2.5

2.1

LSA1690

lsa1690

Putative cellobiose-specific PTS, enzyme IIC

0.9

  

LSA1792*

scrA

Sucrose-specific PTS, enzyme IIBCA

0.8

 

1.1

Metabolism of carbohydrates and related molecules

LSA0123*

lsa0123

Putative sugar kinase, ROK family

1.2

  

LSA0198

ack1

Acetate kinase (acetokinase)

1.7

 

1.3

LSA0254*

lsa0254

Putative carbohydrate kinase

2.4

0.8

1.8

LSA0292*

budC

Acetoin reductase (acetoin dehydrogenase) (meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase)

3.4

2.3

3.4

LSA0444

lsa0444

Putative malate dehydrogenase

3.4

D

2.1

LSA0516

hprK

Hpr kinase/phosphorylase

2.0

1.6

1.2

LSA0664*

loxL1N

L-lactate oxidase (N-terminal fragment), degenerate

1.2

 

0.7

LSA0665*

loxLI

L-lactate oxidase (central fragment), degenerate

1.0

  

LSA0666*

loxL1C

L-lactate oxidase (C-terminal fragment), degenerate

1.0

  

LSA0974*

pflB

Formate C-acetyltransferase (pyruvate formate-lyase) (formate acetyltransferase)

4.0

  

LSA0981

aldB

Acetolactate decarboxylase (alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase)

 

0.6

1.9

LSA0982

als

Acetolactate synthase (alpha-acetolactate synthase)

  

1.9

LSA0983

lsa0983

Putative aldose-1 epimerase

0.6

  

LSA1032

pyk

Pyruvate kinase

 

-0.7

 

LSA1080

lsa1080

Myo-inositol monophosphatase

0.6

 

0.8

LSA1082

pdhD

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, E3 component, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase

2.8

2.5

2.1

LSA1083

pdhC

Puruvate dehydrogenase complex, E2 component, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

3.4

3.7

2.7

LSA1084

pdhB

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, E1 component, beta subunit

3.2

3.3

2.2

LSA1085

pdhA

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, E1 component, alpha subunit

2.9

3.5

2.4

LSA1141*

ppdK

Pyruvate phosphate dikinase

1.0

 

0.9

LSA1188*

pox1

Pyruvate oxidase

2.3

3.1

2.1

LSA1298

ack2

Acetate kinase (acetokinase)

1.1

0.9

0.9

LSA1343*

eutD

Phosphate acetyltransferase (phosphotransacetylase)

2.0

1.0

1.6

LSA1381

lsa1381

Putative acylphosphatase

-0.6

-0.5

 

LSA1399*

loxL2

L-lactate oxidase

3.4

U

 

LSA1630

lsa1630

Putative sugar kinase, ROK family

-0.6

 

-0.6

LSA1640*

nanA

N-acetylneuraminate lyase

2.0

 

D

LSA1641*

nanE

N-acylglucosamine/mannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase

0.9

 

D

LSA1643*

lsa1643

Putative sugar kinase, ROK family

1.8

  

LSA1668

ack3

Acetate kinase (acetokinase)

-0.7

 

-1.1

LSA1830*

pox2

Pyruvate oxidase

0.7

  

Intermediary metabolism

LSA0255*

lsa0255

Putative phosphoribosyl isomerase

2.0

1.0

1.6

Specific carbohydrate metabolic pathway

LSA0201*

rbsD

D-ribose pyranase

2.5

2.5

3.4

LSA0202*

rbsK

Ribokinase

3.0

3.9

4.3

LSA0289*

xpk

Xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase

3.2

2.3

2.6

LSA0297

gntZ

6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

-1.2

-0.9

-1.7

LSA0298

gntK

Gluconokinase

-0.8

  

LSA0381

zwf

Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase

-0.6

-0.6

-0.6

LSA0649*

glpK

Glycerol kinase

3.4

4.8

2.1

LSA0650*

glpD

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

2.3

2.2

2.0

LSA0764*

galK

Galactokinase

1.1

0.7

1.8

LSA0765*

galE1

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase

  

1.2

LSA0766*

galT

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

1.2

0.8

2.0

LSA0767*

galM

Aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase)

1.3

 

2.0

LSA1146*

manA

Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase

1.4

1.3

1.5

LSA1531

lsa1531

Putative beta-glucosidase

 

0.7

0.9

LSA1588

nagA

N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase

0.6

  

LSA1685

rpiA

Ribose 5-phosphate epimerase (ribose 5-phosphate isomerase)

 

1.1

0.8

LSA1710*

lacM

Beta-galactosidase, small subunit (lactase, small subunit)

3.3

 

1.2

LSA1711*

lacL

Beta-galactosidase, large subunit (lactase, large subunit)

3.0

1.5

1.7

LSA1790*

scrK

Fructokinase

 

1.0

1.1

LSA1791*

dexB

Glucan 1,6-alpha-glucosidase (dextran glucosidase)

  

1.1

LSA1795

melA

Alpha-galactosidase (melibiase)

  

-0.6

Glycolytic pathway

LSA0131

gpm2

Phosphoglycerate mutase

 

0.7

 

LSA0206

gpm3

Phosphoglycerate mutase

-0.7

-0.8

-0.9

LSA0609*

gloAC

Lactoylglutathione lyase (C-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

1.1

 

0.7

LSA0803

gpm4

Phosphoglycerate mutase

0.5

 

0.5

LSA1033

pfk

6-phosphofructokinase

-0.6

-1.1

-0.5

LSA1157

mgsA

Methylglyoxal synthase

2.3

1.4

1.7

LSA1179

pgi

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

0.5

  

LSA1527

fba

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase

-1.0

-0.7

-1.1

LSA1606

ldhL

L-lactate dehydrogenase

-1.0

-0.9

-1.5

Nucleotide transport and metabolism

Transport/binding of nucleosides, nucleotides, purines and pyrimidines

LSA0013

lsa0013

Putative nucleobase:cation symporter

-0.9

 

-1.5

LSA0055

lsa0055

Putative thiamine/thiamine precursor:cation symporter

  

1.6

LSA0064

lsa0064

Putative nucleobase:cation symporter

 

-0.8

 

LSA0259

lsa0259

Pyrimidine-specific nucleoside symporter

1.5

 

1.3

LSA0798*

lsa0798

Pyrimidine-specific nucleoside symporter

3.5

2.2

1.7

LSA0799*

lsa0799

Putative purine transport protein

4.4

2.7

2.9

LSA1210

lsa1210

Putative cytosine:cation symporter (C-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

-0.8

 

-0.6

LSA1211

lsa1211

Putative cytosine:cation symporter (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshit

-1.1

 

-0.9

Metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids

LSA0010

lsa0010

Putative nucleotide-binding phosphoesterase

  

-0.6

LSA0023

lsa0023

Putative ribonucleotide reductase (NrdI-like)

-0.5

D

D

LSA0063

purA

Adenylosuccinate synthetase (IMP-aspartate ligase)

 

-0.8

 

LSA0139

guaA

Guanosine monophosphate synthase (glutamine amidotransferase)

 

-0.5

-0.8

LSA0252

iunH1

Inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase

2.6

2.6

1.8

LSA0446

pyrDB

Putative dihydroorotate oxidase, catalytic subunit

  

0.9

LSA0489

lsa0489

Putative metal-dependent phosphohydrolase precursor

0.5

  

LSA0533*

iunH2

Inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase

1.2

  

LSA0785

lsa0785

Putative NCAIR mutase, PurE-related protein

-2.3

 

-1.3

LSA0795*

deoC

2 Deoxyribose-5 phosphate aldolase

4.0

2.1

2.2

LSA0796*

deoB

Phosphopentomutase (phosphodeoxyribomutase)

5.5

4.1

3.2

LSA0797*

deoD

Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase

4.5

2.6

1.9

LSA0801*

pdp

Pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase

1.8

  

LSA0940

nrdF

Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, beta chain

 

1.0

0.6

LSA0941

nrdE

Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, alpha chain

 

1.0

0.6

LSA0942

nrdH

Ribonucleotide reductase, NrdH-redoxin

 

1.1

 

LSA0950

pyrR

Bifunctional protein: uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and pyrimidine operon transcriptional regulator

-0.6

  

LSA0993

rnhB

Ribonuclease HII (RNase HII)

  

0.6

LSA1018

cmk

Cytidylate kinase

  

0.6

LSA1097

lsa1097

Putative ADP-ribose phosphorylase, NUDIX family

0.5

  

LSA1352

lsa1352

Putative phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase

-0.8

  

LSA1651

lsa1651

Putative purine phosphoribosyltransferase, PRT family

 

0.8

 

LSA1661

lsa1661

Putative nucleotide hydrolase, NUDIX family

 

-0.5

 

LSA1805

dgk

Deoxyguanosine kinase

-1.0

 

-0.8

Transcription

Transcription regulation

LSA0130

lsa0130

Putative transcriptional regulator, LacI family

-0.6

  

LSA0132

lsa0132

Putative transcriptional regulator, MarR family

-0.6

  

LSA0161

lsa0161

Putative transcriptional regulator, ArsR family

-0.6

  

LSA0186

lsa0186

Putative transcriptional regulator, LytR family

 

0.8

0.6

LSA0203

rbsR

Ribose operon transcriptional regulator, LacI family

1.7

  

LSA0217

lsa0217

Putative thiosulfate sulfurtransferase with a ArsR-HTH domain, rhodanese family

 

-1.0

-0.7

LSA0229

lsa0229

Putative transcriptional regulator, MerR family (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

-0.5

  

LSA0269

lsa0269

Putative transcriptional regulator, TetR family

  

-0.6

LSA0293

lsa0293

Putative DNA-binding protein, XRE family

  

-0.6

LSA0356

rex1

Redox-sensing transcriptional repressor, Rex

-0.8

-0.5

-0.9

LSA0603

cggR

Glycolytic genes regulator

 

-0.6

-0.6

LSA0669

lsa0669

Putative transcription regulator, TetR family

 

-0.6

 

LSA0783

lsa0783

Putative transcriptional regulator, Fnr/Crp Family

-0.6

  

LSA0800

deoR

Deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator, GntR family

3.8

2.1

1.9

LSA0835

lsa0835

Putative DNA-binding protein, XRE family

-0.6

  

LSA0848

rex

Redox-sensing transcriptional repressor, Rex

1.6

0.7

 

LSA0972

lsa0972

Putative transcriptional regulator, LysR family

0.9

  

LSA1201

lsa1201

Putative transcriptional regulator, GntR family

1.4

D

D

LSA1322

glnR

Glutamine synthetase transcriptional regulator, MerR family

-1.4

-1.3

 

LSA1351

lsa1351

Putative transcritional regulator with aminotransferase domain, GntR family

 

-0.5

-0.6

LSA1434

lsa1434

Putative transcriptional regulator, DUF24 family (related to MarR/PadR families)

-0.8

  

LSA1449

spxA

Transcriptional regulator Spx

1.0

 

0.6

LSA1521

lsa1521

Putative transcriptional regulator, TetR family

0.6

  

LSA1554

lsa1554

Putative transcriptional regulator, LacI family

-0.7

-0.9

-0.5

LSA1587

lsa1587

Putative transcriptional regulator, GntR family

0.6

  

LSA1611

lsa1611

Putative DNA-binding protein, PemK family

 

-0.5

-0.7

LSA1653

lsa1653

Putative transcriptional regulator, MarR family

  

-0.6

LSA1692

lsa1692

Putative transcriptional regulator, GntR family

0.7

 

0.7

CoEnzyme transport and metabolism

Metabolism of coenzymes and prostethic groups

LSA0041

panE

2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase

 

0.8

 

LSA0057

thiE

Thiamine-phosphate pyrophosphorylase (thiamine-phosphate synthase)

  

1.9

LSA0058

thiD

Phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase (HMP-phosphate kinase)

  

1.4

LSA0059

thiM

Hydroxyethylthiazole kinase (4-methyl-5-beta-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase)

1.0

 

1.8

LSA0183

lsa0183

Putative hydrolase, isochorismatase/nicotamidase family

-0.7

  

LSA0840

lsa0840

Putative glutamate-cysteine ligase

0.6

  

LSA0947

fhs

Formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase (formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase)

0.6

  

LSA0980

lsa0980

Putative hydroxymethylpyrimidine/phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase, PfkB family

0.6

  

LSA1101

folK

2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphokinase

0.6

U

 

LSA1614

acpS

Holo-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase (holo-ACP synthase) (4'-phosphopantetheine transferase AcpS)

-1.0

-0.9

-0.9

LSA1664

lsa1664

Putative dihydrofolate reductase

1.6

1.1

1.5

Energy production and conversion

Membrane bioenergetics (ATP synthase)

LSA1125

atpC

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), epsilon subunit

0.6

  

LSA1126

atpD

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), beta subunit

  

0.6

LSA1127

atpG

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), gamma subunit

  

0.8

LSA1128

atpA

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), alpha subunit

  

0.6

LSA1129

atpH

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), delta subunit

  

0.6

LSA1130

atpF

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), B subunit

  

0.5

LSA1131

atpE

H(+)-transporting two-sector ATPase (ATP synthase), C subunit

  

0.7

Inorganic ion transport and metabolism

Transport/binding of inorganic ions

LSA0029

lsa0029

Putative ion Mg(2+)/Co(2+) transport protein, hemolysinC-family

  

-0.7

LSA0134

lsa0134

Putative Na(+)/H(+) antiporter

  

-0.6

LSA0180

mtsC

Manganese ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.8

  

LSA0181

mtsB

Manganese ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

-0.8

 

-1.0

LSA0182

mtsA

Manganese ABC transporter, substrate-binding lipoprotein precursor

-0.7

 

-0.6

LSA0246

mntH1

Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transport protein

-0.9

 

-1.3

LSA0283

lsa0283

Putative zinc/iron ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

  

-0.5

LSA0284

lsa0284

Putative zinc/iron ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

  

-0.6

LSA0399

lsa0399

Iron(III)-compound ABC transporter, substrate-binding lipoprotein precursor

1.1

0.9

 

LSA0400

lsa0400

Iron(III)-compound ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

 

0.7

 

LSA0401

lsa0401

Iron(III)-compound ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

  

0.5

LSA0402

lsa0402

Iron(III)-compound ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

0.5

 

0.6

LSA0503

pstC

Phosphate ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

0.5

  

LSA0504

pstA

Phosphate ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

0.6

  

LSA0781

lsa0781

Putative cobalt ABC transporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

-0.9

  

LSA0782

lsa0782

Putative cobalt ABC transporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

-2.1

  

LSA1166

lsa1166

Putative potassium transport protein

0.7

  

LSA1440

cutC

Copper homeostasis protein, CutC family

-0.6

  

LSA1460

atkB

Copper-transporting P-type ATPase

0.6

  

LSA1638

lsa1638

Putative large conductance mechanosensitive channel

 

-1.0

-0.8

LSA1645

lsa1645

Putative Na(+)/(+) antiporter

1.4

 

D

LSA1699

mntH2

Mn(2+)/Fe(2+) transport protein

  

-0.6

LSA1703

lsa1703

Putative Na(+)/H(+) antiporter

-1.2

  

LSA1704

lsa1704

Putative calcium-transporting P-type ATPase

  

-0.8

LSA1735

lsa1735

Putative cobalt ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

  

-0.6

LSA1736

lsa1736

Putative cobalt ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.6

  

LSA1737

lsa1737

Putative cobalt ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.7

  

LSA1838

lsa1838

Putative metal ion ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

  

-0.5

LSA1839

lsa1839

Putative metal ion ABC transporter, substrate-binding lipoprotein precursor

  

-0.6

Amino acid transport and metabolism

Transport/binding of amino acids

LSA0125

lsa0125

Putative amino acid/polyamine transport protein

0.6

  

LSA0189

lsa0189

Putative amino acid/polyamine transport protein

  

-0.7

LSA0311

lsa0311

Putative glutamate/aspartate:cation symporter

-1.1

 

-1.0

LSA1037

lsa1037

Putative amino acid/polyamine transport protein

1.0

0.8

0.5

LSA1219

lsa1219

Putative cationic amino acid transport protein

0.7

  

LSA1415

lsa1415

Putative amino acid/polyamine transport protein

1.1

 

0.7

LSA1424

lsa1424

Putative L-aspartate transport protein

-1.4

-0.9

-1.2

LSA1435

lsa1435

Putative amino acid:H(+) symporter

1.0

 

0.8

LSA1496

lsa1496

Putative glutamine/glutamate ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

 

1.2

 

LSA1497

lsa1497

Putative glutamine/glutamate ABC transporter, membrane-spanning/substrate-binding subunit precursor

 

0.7

 

Transport/binding of proteins/peptides

LSA0702

oppA

Oligopeptide ABC transporter, substrate-binding lipoprotein precursor

 

1.3

1.0

LSA0703

oppB

Oligopeptide ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

 

0.8

0.8

LSA0704

oppC

Oligopeptide ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

 

1.8

1.0

LSA0705

oppD

Oligopeptide ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

 

1.2

1.1

LSA0706

oppF

Oligopeptide ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

 

1.2

1.2

Protein fate

LSA0053

pepO

Endopeptidase O

0.6

  

LSA0133

pepR

Prolyl aminopeptidase

1.5

  

LSA0226

pepN

Aminopeptidase N (lysyl-aminopeptidase-alanyl aminopeptidase)

  

-0.7

LSA0285

pepF1

Oligoendopeptidase F1

  

-0.7

LSA0320

pepD3

Dipeptidase D-type (U34 family)

 

-0.8

-0.5

LSA0424

pepV

Xaa-His dipeptidase V (carnosinase)

1.6

  

LSA0643

pepX

X-Prolyl dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase

0.6

  

LSA0888

pepT

Tripeptide aminopeptidase T

0.6

  

LSA1522

pepS

Aminopeptidase S

0.5

  

LSA1686

pepC1N

Cysteine aminopeptidase C1 (bleomycin hydrolase) (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

 

1.6

 

LSA1688

pepC2

Cysteine aminopeptidase C2 (bleomycin hydrolase)

 

0.7

 

LSA1689

lsa1689

Putative peptidase M20 family

1.0

 

1.1

Metabolism of amino acids and related molecules

LSA0220_c

dapE

Succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase

-1.4

 

-1.5

LSA0316

sdhB

L-serine dehydratase, beta subunit (L-serine deaminase)

-0.7

  

LSA0370*

arcA

Arginine deiminase (arginine dihydrolase)

1.9

  

LSA0372*

arcC

Carbamate kinase

0.5

  

LSA0463

lsa0463

Putative 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase

-0.7

  

LSA0509

kbl

2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase (glycine acetyltransferase)

1.5

  

LSA0510

lsa0510

L-threonine dehydrogenase (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

2.0

0.5

 

LSA0572*

tdcB

Threonine deaminase (threonine ammonia-lyase, threonine dehydratase, IlvA homolog)

2.2

 

1.7

LSA0922

serA

D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase

0.9

  

LSA1134

glyA

Glycine/Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

 

0.7

 

LSA1321

glnA

Glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)

-1.3

-1.0

 

LSA1484

mvaS

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase

-0.7

-0.6

-0.7

LSA1693

asnA2

L-asparaginase

0.8

  

Lipid transport and metabolism

Metabolism of lipids

LSA0045

cfa

Cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase

-1.3

-1.4

-1.4

LSA0644

lsa0644

Putative acyl-CoA thioester hydrolase

0.6

  

LSA0812

fabZ1

(3R)-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] dehydratase

 

-0.7

0.5

LSA0813

fabH

3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthetase III

  

0.6

LSA0814

acpP

Acyl carrier protein

  

0.6

LSA0815

fabD

Malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase

 

-0.7

0.7

LSA0816

fabG

3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase

 

-0.7

 

LSA0817

fabF

3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthetase II

 

-0.7

 

LSA0819

fabZ

(3R)-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl carrier proetin] dehydratase

  

0.7

LSA0820

accC

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (biotin carbooxylase subunit)

 

-0.7

 

LSA0821

accD

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (carboxyl transferase beta subunit)

  

0.8

LSA0822

accA

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (carboxyl transferase alpha subunit)

  

0.6

LSA0823

fabI

Enoyl [acyl carrier protein] reductase

  

0.9

LSA0891

lsa0891

Putative lipase/esterase

1.2

  

LSA1485

mvaA

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase

-0.5

  

LSA1493

lsa1493

Putative diacylglycerol kinase

-0.6

-0.9

-0.7

LSA1652

ipk

4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase

-0.6

 

-0.7

Secondary metabolites transport and metabolism

Transport/binding proteins and lipoproteins

LSA0046

lsa0046

Putative transport protein

-1.0

-0.6

-1.3

LSA0089

lsa0089

Putative drug transport protein

-2.1

-0.9

-0.8

LSA0094

lsa0094

Putative transport protein, Major Facilitator Super (MFS) family transporter

-0.7

 

-0.7

LSA0095

lsa0095

Putative transport protein

1.3

0.5

 

LSA0128

lsa0128

Putative antimicrobial peptide ABC exporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

  

-0.5

LSA0187

lsa0187

Putative drug-resistance ABC transporter, two ATP-binding subunits

 

0.7

 

LSA0219_b

lsa0219_b

Putative cyanate transport protein

-0.6

  

LSA0232

lmrA

Multidrug ABC exporter, ATP-binding and membrane-spanning/permease subunits

-0.7

 

-0.7

LSA0270

lsa0270

Putative multidrug ABC exporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

-0.7

  

LSA0271

lsa0271

Putative multidrug ABC exporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.7

 

-0.6

LSA0272

lsa0272

Putative multidrug ABC exporter, ATP-binding and membrane-spanning/permease subunits

-0.6

 

-0.6

LSA0308

lsa0308

Putative drug:H(+) antiporter

  

-0.7

LSA0376

lsa0376

Putative transport protein

0.7

  

LSA0420

lsa0420

Putative drug:H(+) antiporter (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

-0.8

 

-1.1

LSA0469

lsa0469

Putative drug:H(+) antiporter

-0.6

 

-0.5

LSA0788

lsa0788

Putative facilitator protein, MIP family

-2.6

  

LSA0936

lsa0936

Putative drug ABC exporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

1.1

  

LSA0937

lsa0937

Putative drug ABC exporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

1.3

  

LSA0938

lsa0938

Putative drug ABC exporter, ATP-binding subunit

1.2

  

LSA0963

lsa0963

Integral membrane protein, hemolysin III related

   

LSA1088

lsa1088

Putative multidrug ABC exporter, ATP-binding and membrane-spanning/permease subunits

0.5

  

LSA1261

lsa1261

Putative autotransport protein

0.5

  

LSA1340

lsa1340

Putative transport protein

 

-0.7

 

LSA1366

lsa1366

Putative ABC exporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.8

 

-1.0

LSA1367

lsa1367

Putative ABC exporter, membrane-spanning/permease subunit

-0.8

-0.5

-0.8

LSA1420

lsa1417

Putative lipase/esterase

 

-1.1

 

LSA1621

lsa1621

Putative drug:H(+) antiporter

 

-1.1

 

LSA1642

lsa1642

Putative Solute:Na(+) symporter

3.4

1.8

D

LSA1872

lsa1872

Putative drug:H(+) antiporter

 

0.7

 

LSA1878

lsa1878

Putative drug resistance ABC transporter, two ATP-binding subunits

-0.6

  

Detoxification

LSA0772

lsa0772

Hypothetical protein (TelA, telluric resistance family)

1.0

 

0.7

LSA1317

lsa1317

Putative chromate reductase

0.6

-0.7

 

LSA1450

lsa1450

Putative metal-dependent hydrolase (beta-lactamase family III)

  

0.6

LSA1776

lsa1776

Putative 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase

0.6

 

D

Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis

Translation initiation

LSA1135

lsa1135

Putative translation factor, Sua5 family

 

0.7

0.6

Translation elongation

LSA0251

efp1

Elongation factor P (EF-P)

0.5

  

LSA1063

tuf

Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu)

0.6

  

Ribosomal proteins

LSA0011

rplI

50S Ribosomal protein L9

  

-0.8

LSA0266

rpsN

30S ribosomal protein S14

 

0.7

-0.5

LSA0494

lsa0494

30S ribosomal interface protein S30EA

1.7

  

LSA0696

rpmB

50S ribosomal protein L28

  

0.8

LSA1017

rpsA

30S Ribosomal protein S1

0.9

 

0.6

LSA1333

rpmG

50S ribosomal protein L33

  

0.6

LSA1666

rplL

50S ribosomal protein L7/L12

-0.6

  

LSA1676

rpmG2

50S ribosomal protein L33

  

-0.6

LSA1750

rplF

50S ribosomal protein L6

 

0.6

 

LSA1755

rpsQ

30S ribosomal protein S17

 

0.5

 

LSA1761

rplB

50S ribosomal protein L2

 

0.6

 

LSA1765

rpsJ

30S ribosomal protein S10

-0.7

  

Protein synthesis

LSA0377

tgt

Queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase

-0.6

  

LSA1546

gatB

Glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, subunit B

 

-0.5

 

LSA1547

gatA

Glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, subunit A

-0.5

 

-0.5

RNA restriction and modification

LSA0437

lsa0437

Hypothetical protein with an RNA-binding domain

-0.7

  

LSA0443

lsa0443

Putative single-stranded mRNA endoribonuclease

2.7

 

1.9

LSA0738

dtd

D-tyrosyl-tRNA(tyr) deacylase

0.5

  

LSA0794

trmU

tRNA (5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate)-methyltransferase

 

-0.9

 

LSA1534

lsa1534

Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase

 

0.9

 

LSA1615

lsa1615

Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase

-0.7

-0.8

-1.0

LSA1723

truA

tRNA pseudouridylate synthase A (pseudouridylate synthase I)

-0.7

 

-0.6

LSA1880

trmE

tRNA modification GTPase trmE

-0.7

  

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

LSA0880

glyQ

Glycyl-tRNA synthetase, alpha subunit

 

0.7

 

LSA0881

glyS

Glycyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit

 

0.7

 

LSA1400

thrS

Threonyl-tRNA synthetase

0.6

  

LSA1681

cysS

Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase

-0.6

  

DNA replication, recombination and repair

DNA replication

LSA0221

lsa0221

Putative transcriptional regulator, LysR family (C-terminal fragment), degenerate

-0.8

-0.9

-1.1

LSA0976

parE

Topoisomerase IV, subunit B

 

0.5

 

Transposon and IS

LSA1152_a

tnpA3-ISLsa1

Transposase of ISLsa1 (IS30 family)

-0.6

  

Phage-related function

LSA1292

lsa1292

Putative prophage protein

0.6

  

LSA1788

lsa1788

Putative phage-related 1,4-beta-N-acetyl muramidase (cell wall hydrolase)

-1.0

D

D

DNA recombination and repair

LSA0076

lsa0076

Putative DNA invertase (plasmidic resolvase)

-1.1

-1.5

-1.4

LSA0366

ruvA

Holliday junction DNA helicase RuvA

  

-0.5

LSA0382

dinP

DNA-damage-inducible protein P

-0.5

  

LSA0487

recA

DNA recombinase A

-0.8

 

-1.1

LSA0523

uvrB

Excinuclease ABC, subunit B

-0.7

 

-0.5

LSA0524

uvrA1

Excinuclease ABC, subunit A

-1.2

 

-0.7

LSA0910

rexAN

ATP-dependent exonuclease, subunit A (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

0.6

  

LSA0911

rexAC

ATP-dependent exonuclease, subunit A (C-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

0.7

  

LSA0912

lsa0912

Putative ATP-dependent helicase, DinG family

0.6

 

0.8

LSA1162

lsa1162

DNA-repair protein (SOS response UmuC-like protein)

 

0.8

-0.6

LSA1405

fpg

Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase

-0.5

-0.6

-0.6

LSA1477

recX

Putative regulatory protein, RecX family

-0.6

  

LSA1843

ogt

Methylated-DNA-protein-cysteine S-methyltransferase

-0.6

  

DNA restriction and modification

LSA0143

lsa0143

Putative adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase

-0.7

D

D

LSA0921

lsa0921

Putative adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase

0.8

  

LSA1299

lsa1299

Putative adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase

0.9

0.7

1.2

Information pathways

LSA0326

lsa0326

Putative DNA helicase

 

-0.6

U

DNA packaging and segregation

LSA0135

lsa0135

Hypothetical integral membrane protein, similar to CcrB

  

-0.6

LSA1015

hbsU

Histone-like DNA-binding protein HU

1.0

 

0.9

Cell division and chromosome partitioning

Cell division

LSA0755

divIVA

Cell-division initiation protein (septum placement)

  

0.5

LSA0845

lsa0845

Putative negative regulator of septum ring formation

0.7

 

0.6

LSA1118

lsa1118

Rod-shape determining protein

 

0.6

0.5

LSA1597

ftsH

ATP-dependent zinc metalloendopeptidase FtsH (cell division protein FtsH)

  

-0.6

LSA1879

gidA

Cell division protein GidA

-0.6

  

Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane

Cell wall

LSA0280

murE

UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase

-0.6

-0.6

-0.7

LSA0621

pbp2A

Bifunctional glycolsyltransferase/transpeptidase penicillin binding protein 2A

  

0.7

LSA0648

lsa0648

Putative penicillin-binding protein precursor (beta-lactamase class C)

  

1.0

LSA0862

lsa0862

N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase precursor (cell wall hydrolase) (autolysin)

0.6

 

0.8

LSA0917

pbp1A

Bifunctional glycosyltransferase/transpeptidase penicillin-binding protein 1A

  

0.5

LSA1123

murA1

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase I

 

-0.5

 

LSA1334

pbp2B2

Bifuntional dimerisation/transpeptidase penicillin-binding protein 2B

 

0.7

0.7

LSA1437

lsa1437

N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase precursor (cell wall hydrolase) (autolysin)

 

-0.7

 

LSA1441

bacA

Putative undecaprenol kinase (bacitracine resistance protein A)

 

0.6

 

LSA1613

alr

Alanine racemase

-0.8

-0.9

-0.7

LSA1616

murF

UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide--D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase

  

-0.5

Cell envelope and cellular processes

  

LSA0162

lsa0162

Putative Bifunctional glycosyl transferase, family 8

 

-1.2

-1.5

LSA1246

lsa1246

Putative glycosyl transferase, family 2

 

-0.9

 

LSA1558

lsa1558

Putative extracellular N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase precursor (cell wall hydrolase/Lysosyme subfamily 2)

  

-0.6

Cell motility and secretion

Protein secretion

LSA0948

lspA

Signal peptidase II (lipoprotein signal peptidase) (prolipoprotein signal peptidase)

  

0.5

LSA1884

oxaA2

Membrane protein chaperone oxaA

  

-0.6

Signal transduction

Signal transduction

LSA0561

sppKN

Two-component system, sensor histidine kinase, (SppK fragment), degenerate

 

0.5

 

LSA0692

lsa0692

Putative serine/threonine protein kinase

 

0.5

0.6

LSA1384

lsa1384

Two-component system, response regulator

 

0.5

 

Post translational modifications, protein turnover, chaperones

Protein folding

LSA0050

lsa0050

Putative molecular chaperone, small heat shock protein, Hsp20 family

  

-0.7

LSA0082

htrA

Serine protease HtrA precursor, trypsin family

 

-0.6

 

LSA0207

clpL

ATPase/chaperone ClpL, putative specificity factor for ClpP protease

0.6

  

LSA0358

groS

Co-chaperonin GroES (10 kD chaperonin) (protein Cpn10)

  

-0.5

LSA0359

groEL

Chaperonin GroEL (60 kDa chaperonin) (protein Cpn60)

  

-0.5

LSA0436

lsa0436

Putative peptidylprolyl isomerase (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase) (PPIase)

  

-0.6

LSA0984

hslU

ATP-dependent Hsl protease, ATP-binding subunit HslU

0.7

 

0.7

LSA1465

clpE

ATPase/chaperone ClpE, putative specificity factor for ClpP protease

-0.7

-0.6

-0.6

LSA1618

htpX

Membrane metalloprotease, HtpX homolog

 

0.8

 

Adaption to atypical conditions

LSA0170

lsa0170

Putative general stress protein

0.5

 

-1.5

LSA0247

usp2

Similar to universal stress protein, UspA family

  

-0.5

LSA0264

lsa0264

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine/choline transport protein

-0.6

 

-0.6

LSA0513

lsa0513

Putative stress-responsive transcriptional regulator

 

-0.8

 

LSA0552

lsa0552

Organic hydroperoxide resistance protein

 

0.6

 

LSA0616

lsa0616

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

0.9

  

LSA0617

lsa0617

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

1.3

  

LSA0618

lsa0618

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter, substrate-binding lipoprotein

0.6

  

LSA0619

lsa0619

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

1.5

0.5

 

LSA0642

usp3

Similar to universal stress protein, UspA

0.9

  

LSA0768

csp1

Similar to cold shock protein, CspA family

2.1

0.6

1.8

LSA0836

usp6

Similar to universal stress protein, UspA family

0.6

  

LSA0946

csp4

Similar to cold shock protein, CspA family

0.6

  

LSA1110

lsa1110

Putative NifU-homolog involved in Fe-S cluster assembly

 

0.6

 

LSA1111

lsa1111

Putative cysteine desulfurase (class-V aminotransferase, putative SufS protein homologue)

 

0.7

 

LSA1173

usp4

Similar to universal stress protein, UspA family

1.5

-2.1

 

LSA1694

lsa1694

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine ABC transporter, substrate binding lipoprotein precursor

-1.7

 

-1.1

LSA1695

lsa1695

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine ABC transporter, membrane-spanning subunit

-2.1

-2.0

-1.9

LSA1696

lsa1696

Putative glycine/betaine/carnitine ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

-1.6

 

-0.9

LSA1870

lsa1870

Putative glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter, ATP-binding subunit

-0.6

 

-0.6

Protein modification

LSA0865

lsa0865

Putative protein methionine sulfoxide reductase

 

-0.6

 

LSA0866

msrA

Protein methionine sulfoxide reductase

 

-0.7

 

LSA0934

lplA

Lipoate-protein ligase

1.6

1.4

1.0

LSA0973

pflA

Pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme

1.7

  

General function prediction only

Miscellaneous

LSA0030

lsa0030

Putative aldo/keto reductase (oxidoreductase)

 

-0.7

-0.8

LSA0120

lsa0120

Putative GTP-binding protein

-0.5

  

LSA0164

lsa0164

Putative serine/tyrosine protein phosphatase

0.2

-1.1

-1.2

LSA0165

lsa0165

Putative oxidoreductase, short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family

 

-0.9

-1.2

LSA0218

trxA1

Thioredoxin

 

-0.9

 

LSA0258

lsa0258

Putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase

1.6

0.5

1.6

LSA0260

lsa0260

Putative aldo/keto reductase (oxidoreductase)

1.9

1.2

1.7

LSA0312

lsa0312

Putative NADH oxidase

-0.9

 

-1.0

LSA0324

lsa0324

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase family (N-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

1.9

  

LSA0325

lsa0325

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase family (C-terminal fragment), authentic frameshift

1.8

  

LSA0350

lsa0350

Putative N-acetyltransferase, GNAT family

-0.5

  

LSA0369

lsa0369

Putative N-acetyltransferase, GNAT family

-0.5

 

-0.5

LSA0384

lsa0384

Putative phosphoesterase, DHH family

-0.5

  

LSA0403

lsa0403

Putative thioredoxin reductase

 

0.9

 

LSA0447

lsa0447

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase family

  

0.6

LSA0475

lsa0475

Putative N-acetyltransferase, GNAT family

 

-0.6

 

LSA0520

trxB2

Thioredoxin reductase

-0.8

  

LSA0575

npr

NADH peroxidase

1.0

U

 

LSA0802

nox

NADH oxidase

1.5

  

LSA0806

lsa0806

Putative N-acetyltransferase, GNAT family

0.6

  

LSA0831

lsa0831

Putative nitroreductase (oxidoreductase)

 

1.6

 

LSA0896

sodA

Iron/Manganese superoxide dismutase

3.4

1.7

1.7

LSA0925

adh

Putative zinc-containg alcohol dehydrogenase (oxidoreductase)

0.5

  

LSA0971

ppa

Inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase)

0.7

  

LSA0994

lsa0994

Putative GTP-binding protein

  

0.6

LSA1016

engA

Putative GTP-binding protein

0.6

 

0.7

LSA1045

obgE

Putative GTP-binding protein

0.6

  

LSA1153

lsa1153

Hypothetical protein, CAAX protease family

0.5

  

LSA1311

lsa1311

Hypothetical protein containing a possible heme/steroid binding domain

0.7

-0.6

 

LSA1320

lsa1320

Putative NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase

 

-0.8

 

LSA1345

lsa1345

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase family

0.5

  

LSA1349

lsa1349

Putative N-acetyltransferase, GNAT family

 

-0.5

 

LSA1365

lsa1365

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.5

-0.7

LSA1368

lsa1368

Hypothetical protein

0.9

 

0.6

LSA1371

lsa1371

Hypothetical membrane protein

0.6

  

LSA1395

lsa1395

Putative zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (oxidoreductase)

0.9

  

LSA1427

lsa1427

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase

1.3

 

0.6

LSA1472

lsa1472

Putative N-acetyl transferase, GNAT family

0.6

  

LSA1535

lsa1535

Putative oxidoreductase

0.5

1.1

0.7

LSA1553

lsa1553

Putative hydrolase, haloacid dehalogenase family

-0.6

  

LSA1559

lsa1559

Putative oxidoreductase

0.6

1.1

0.7

LSA1702

lsa1702

Putative zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (oxidoreductase)

1.1

  

LSA1712

lsa1712

Putative nitroreductase (oxidoreductase)

 

-0.7

-0.8

LSA1832

lsa1832

Putative zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (oxidoreductase)

 

1.0

 

LSA1835

lsa1835

Putative zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (oxidoreductase)

-0.7

 

-1.0

LSA1867

lsa1867

Putative acetyltransferase, isoleucine patch superfamily

-0.5

-0.6

-0.7

LSA1871

gshR

Glutathione reductase

-0.6

  

Unknown

Proteins of unknown function that are similar to other proteins

LSA0018

lsa0018

Hypothetical protein

 

0.5

 

LSA0027

lsa0027

Hypothetical protein

  

-1.1

LSA0028

lsa0028

Hypothetical protein, DegV family

-0.5

  

LSA0044

lsa0044

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.7

LSA0061

lsa0061

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

-0.5

  

LSA0106

lsa0106

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

0.5

  

LSA0160

lsa0160

Hypothetical protein

-0.7

  

LSA0166

lsa0166

Hypothetical Integral membrane protein

  

-1.2

LSA0190

lsa0190

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.7

 

-0.6

LSA0191

lsa0191

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.6

 

-0.6

LSA0199

lsa0199

Hypothetical protein

1.1

1.0

1.1

LSA0208

lsa0208

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

0.7

  

LSA0235

lsa0235

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

2.1

1.6

1.7

LSA0236

lsa0236

Hypothetical extracellular peptide precursor

2.0

1.3

1.5

LSA0244

lsa0244

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

-0.5

LSA0245

lsa0245

Hypothetical lipoprotein precursor

-0.9

-1.0

-1.1

LSA0249

lsa0249

Hypothetical protein

1.1

1.0

 

LSA0263

lsa0263

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.6

 

-0.9

LSA0300

lsa0300

Hypothetical protein

  

0.7

LSA0315

lsa0315

Hypothetical protein

-0.7

  

LSA0319

lsa0319

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.8

-0.8

LSA0323

lsa0323

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.5

LSA0337

lsa0337

Hypothetical protein

-0.7

  

LSA0348

lsa0348

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.9

 

-0.7

LSA0352

lsa0352

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.6

  

LSA0354

lsa0354

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

-1.1

LSA0388

lsa0388

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

 

LSA0389

lsa0389

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.7

-0.7

LSA0390

lsa0390

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.5

 

LSA0409

lsa0409

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

-0.8

LSA0418

lsa0418

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.8

LSA0464

lsa0464

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

 

LSA0470

lsa0470

Hypothetical protein

0.9

 

0.7

LSA0512

lsa0512

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

 

LSA0515

lsa0515

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

 

-0.5

 

LSA0536

lsa0536

Hypothetical protein

 

0.7

 

LSA0716

lsa0716

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA0752

lsa0752

Hypothetical protein

0.5

 

0.6

LSA0757

lsa0757

Hypothetical protein

 

0.8

 

LSA0773

lsa0773

Hypothetical protein

0.9

 

0.6

LSA0784

lsa0784

Hypothetical protein

-2.6

  

LSA0786

lsa0786

Hypothetical protein

-2.0

  

LSA0787

lsa0787

Hypothetical protein

-1.7

  

LSA0790

lsa0790

Hypothetical protein, ATP utilizing enzyme PP-loop family

-2.5

  

LSA0827

lsa0827

Hypothetical lipoprotein precursor

0.8

 

U

LSA0828

lsa0828

Hypothetical protein

0.7

  

LSA0829

lsa0829

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

0.5

LSA0874

lsa0874

Hypothetical protein

0.5

  

LSA0901

lsa0901

Hypothetical protein

  

0.5

LSA0913

lsa0913

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

0.5

 

0.7

LSA0919

lsa0919

Hypothetical protein

  

0.7

LSA0933

lsa0933

Hypothetical protein

0.6

 

0.6

LSA0961

lsa0961

Hypothetical protein, DegV family

 

-0.5

 

LSA0968

lsa0968

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

0.7

  

LSA0977

lsa0977

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

0.7

 

0.8

LSA0987

lsa0987

Hypotehtical protein, GidA family (C-terminal fragment)

0.5

  

LSA0996

lsa0996

Hypothetical protein

  

0.5

LSA1003

lsa1003

Hypothetical protein

2.0

 

1.2

LSA1005

lsa1005

Hypothetical membrane protein

0.9

0.6

0.7

LSA1008

lsa1008

Putative extracellular chitin-binding protein precursor

 

0.9

1.2

LSA1027

lsa1027

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA1047

lsa1047

Hypothetical protein

3.5

1.2

1.3

LSA1064

lsa1064

Hypothetical protein

0.5

 

0.7

LSA1075

lsa1075

Hypothetical protein

  

0.5

LSA1078

lsa1078

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA1081

lsa1081

Hypothetical protein

1.0

 

1.0

LSA1091

lsa1091

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA1096

lsa1096

Hypothetical protein

0.6

  

LSA1124

lsa1124

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.7

 

LSA1154

lsa1154

Hypothetical protein

0.6

 

0.6

LSA1158

lsa1158

Hypothetical protein

1.7

1.4

 

LSA1189

lsa1189

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-1.6

 

-1.1

LSA1282

lsa1282

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.5

 

LSA1296

lsa1296

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

 

-1.2

-0.8

LSA1342

lsa1342

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.7

 

LSA1346

lsa1346

Hypothetical protein

0.8

  

LSA1350

lsa1350

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

-1.0

LSA1353

lsa1353

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.9

-0.5

 

LSA1446

lsa1446

Hypothetical protein

-0.6

-0.6

-0.7

LSA1466

lsa1466

Hypothetical protein

0.6

  

LSA1467

lsa1467

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

-1.1

LSA1524

lsa1524

Hypothetical protein

0.7

  

LSA1540

lsa1540

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

0.7

  

LSA1563

lsa1563

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

 

-0.6

-0.6

LSA1610

lsa1610

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.7

 

-0.9

LSA1617

lsa1617

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.7

LSA1620

lsa1620

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.6

LSA1623

lsa1623

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.5

 

-0.6

LSA1637

lsa1637

Hypothetical integral membrane protein, TerC family

-1.7

-1.0

-1.6

LSA1644

lsa1644

Hypothetical protein

1.7

 

D

LSA1649

lsa1649

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

  

-0.5

LSA1659

lsa1659

Hypothetical protein

-0.5

  

LSA1662

lsa1662

Hypothetical protein

-1.0

-0.6

-0.7

LSA1663

lsa1663

Hypothetical protein

-0.8

  

LSA1678

lsa1678

Hypothetical protein

-0.6

  

LSA1680

lsa1680

Hypothetical protein

-0.6

  

LSA1716

lsa1716

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.5

 

LSA1822

lsa1822

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.5

LSA1828

lsa1828

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

0.6

0.7

 

LSA1850

lsa1850

Hypothetical protein

 

-0.6

 

LSA1876

lsa1876

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

-0.6

LSA1877

lsa1877

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.6

Proteins of unknown function only similar to other proteins from the same organism

LSA1159

lsa1159

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

2.0

 

0.5

LSA1165

lsa1165

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

1.8

  

LSA1700

lsa1700

Hypothetical protein

2.1

0.8

 

LSA1814

lsa1814

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.5

Proteins of unknown function. without similarity to other proteins

LSA0065

lsa0065

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.5

  

LSA0093

lsa0093

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

-0.9

 

-1.2

LSA0121

lsa0121

Hypothetical small peptide

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

LSA0163

lsa0163

Hypothetical protein

 

-1.1

-1.3

LSA0167

lsa0167

Hypothetical protein

  

-1.4

LSA0168

lsa0168

Hypothetical protein

  

-1.4

LSA0188

lsa0188

Hypothetical small peptide

  

-0.8

LSA0256_a

lsa0256_a

Hypothetical protein

2.3

1.0

2.2

LSA0257

lsa0257

Hypothetical protein

1.4

  

LSA0281

lsa0281

Hypothetical lipoprotein precursor

 

-0.5

-0.6

LSA0301

lsa0301

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA0334

lsa0334

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

1.1

  

LSA0339

lsa0339

Hypothetical protein

-0.5

  

LSA0378

lsa0378

Hypothetical protein

-0.7

  

LSA0514

lsa0514

Hypothetical small extracellular protein precursor

 

-0.8

 

LSA0534

lsa0534

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor (with LPQTG sorting signal)

1.0

 

D

LSA0576

lsa0576

Hypothetical protein

0.5

D

 

LSA0641

lsa0641

Hypothetical extracellular peptide precursor

 

-0.5

 

LSA0647

lsa0647

Hypothetical extracellular protein precursor

0.6

  

LSA0667

lsa0667

Hypothetical protein

1.0

 

0.9

LSA0753

lsa0753

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

  

0.5

LSA0789

lsa0789

Hypothetical protein

-1.9

  

LSA0837

lsa0837

Hypothetical protein

1.2

1.3

1.4

LSA0885

lsa0885

Hypothetical protein

1.8

  

LSA0902

lsa0902

Hypothetical protein

0.7

D

 

LSA0945

lsa0945

Hypothetical protein

  

0.9

LSA1019

lsa1019

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

  

0.8

LSA1035

lsa1035

Hypothetical small integral membrane protein

  

0.6

LSA1086

lsa1086

hypothetical protein

0.8

 

0.5

LSA1104

lsa1104

Hypothetical protein

-0.5

  

LSA1155

lsa1155

Hypothetical integral membrane protein

0.5

  

LSA1174

lsa1174

Hypothetical protein

1.0

  

LSA1176

lsa1176

Hypothetical protein

 

-1.0

U

LSA1319

lsa1319

Hypothetical small protein

 

-0.8

 

LSA1408

lsa1408

Hypothetical protein

  

0.6

LSA1464

lsa1464

Hypothetical protein

-0.6

  

LSA1478

lsa1478

Hypothetical protein

-0.7

-0.6

-0.6

LSA1480

lsa1480

Hypothetical membrane protein

0.5

D

 

LSA1524

lsa1524

Hypothetical protein

0.8

  

LSA1539

lsa1539

Hypothetical protein

0.9

  

LSA1713

lsa1713

Hypothtical small peptide

  

-0.6

LSA1787

lsa1787

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

-0.5

U

 

LSA1820

lsa1820

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

  

-0.6

LSA1821

lsa1821

Hypothetical cell surface protein precursor

 

-0.6

 

LSA1845

lsa1845

Hypothetical small protein

 

0.8

 

LSA1848

lsa1848

Hypothetical protein

  

-0.5

LSA1851

lsa1851

Hypothetical extracellular small protein

-0.6

 

-0.7

LSA1883

lsa1883

Hypothetical small protein

1.2

 

1.5

Bacteriocin associated genes

SKP0001

sppIP

Bacteriocin sakacin P inducing peptide

D

0.5

D

SKP0006

sppT

Sakacin P ABC transporter

D

0.6

D

SKP0007

sppE

Sakacin P accesory transport protein

D

0.6

D

The microarray used has been described previously [32]. Asterix (*) relates the gene to Table 2. D and U refer to genes classified as 'divergent' and 'uncertain', respectively, by CGH analysis [32]. Genes encoding proteins with a change in expression according to McLeod et al. [19], are underlined.

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1471-2180-11-145/MediaObjects/12866_2011_Article_1438_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

Venn diagram showing the number of unique and common up- and down-regulated genes in L. sakei strains 23K, MF1053 and LS 25 when grown on ribose compared with glucose.

Several of the up-regulated genes are located in operons, an organisation believed to provide the advantage of coordinated regulation. In addition, in order to discriminate genes induced by growth on ribose from those repressed by glucose (submitted to CCR mediated by CcpA), a search of the complete genome sequence of L. sakei 23K [7] was undertaken, with the aim to identify putative cre sites. The search revealed 1962 hits, most of which did not have any biological significance considering their unsuitable location in relation to promoters. Relief of CcpA-mediated CCR likely occur for many of the up-regulated genes in the category of carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Putative cre sites were identified in their promoter region, as well as for some genes involved in nucleoside and amino acid transport and metabolism (Table 2). In the other gene categories, the presences of putative cre sites were rare. With regard to gene product, the L. sakei genome shares high level of conservation with Lactobacillus plantarum [7], and high similarity of catabolic operon organization. The role of CcpA in CCR in L. plantarum has been established, and was shown to mediate regulation of the pox genes encoding pyruvate oxidases [41, 42]. During growth on ribose, L. plantarum induces a similar set of genes as observed in the present study, and putative cre sites were identified in the upstream region of several genes involved [33].
Table 2

Putative cre sites present in the promoter region of some L. sake i genes up-regulated in the present study.

Gene locus

Gene

cresite sequencea

Positionb

Co-transcribed genes/operonc

Gene locus

LSA0123

lsa0123

TGAAAGCGTTACAA

-93

  

LSA0185

galP

GAACATCGTTATCA

-46

  

LSA0200

rbsU

GTAAACCGTTTTCA

-113

rbsUDK

LSA0200-0202

LSA0254

lsa0254

TGTAAGCGTTTTAT

-56

lsa0254-lsa0255-lsa0256_a

LSA0254-0256_a

LSA0289

xpk

CTATTACGATGACA

-8

  

LSA0292

budC

TGTAACCGTTTTAA

-51

  

LSA0353

lsa0353

AGAAAGCGCTTATA

-102

  

LSA0370

arcA

TGAAAGCGATTACC

-58

arcA-arcB e -arcC-arcT e -arcD e

LSA0370-0374

LSA0449

manL

TGTTAGCGTTTTTA

-56

manL-manM-manN

LSA0449-0451

LSA0533

iunH2

AAAAAGCGTTCACA

-35

  

LSA0572

tdcB

TGAAAACGTTCTAA

-134

  

LSA0608

Glo AN

TGTAACCGTTTTAA

-100

gloAN-gloAC

LSA0608-0609

LSA0649

glpK

AGGAAACGTTTTCC

-42

glpK-glpD-glpF

LSA0649-0651

LSA0664

loxL1

AGAAAGCGAGTACA

-82

loxL1N-loxLI-loxL1C

LSA0664-0666

LSA0764

galK

TGAAAGCGATTAAT

-30

galK-galE1-galT-galM

LSA0764-0767

LSA0795

deoC

TGAAAGCGTTAACA

-33

deoC-deoB-deoD-lsa0798-lsa0799-deoR-pdp

LSA0795-0801

LSA0974

pflB

TACGAACGCTTACA

-147

pflB-pflA

LSA0974-0973

LSA1048

fruR e

TGTAAACGATGACA

-39

fruR e -fruK e -fruA

LSA1048-1050

LSA1141

ppdK

GGTTATCGATAAAA

-29

  

LSA1146

manA

CGAAATCGCTTTAA

-98

  

LSA1188

pox1

TGTAATCGATTTCA

-88

  

LSA1204

lsa1204

TGTAATCGTTTTTT

-127

  

LSA1343

eutD

GTAAAACGCTCTCA

-94

  

LSA1399

loxL2

TGTAAACGATTTCA

-42

  

LSA1457

lsa1457

TGATAACGCTTACA

-85

  

LSA1463d

ptsH

TGAAAGCGGTATAG

-161

ptsHI

LSA1463-1462

LSA1641

nanE

TGTAAGCGGTTAAT

-85

nanE-nanA

LSA1641-1640

LSA1643

lsa1643

TGATAACGCTTACA

-31

  

LSA1651

lsa1651

GGTAAGCGGTTAAA

-148

  

LSA1711

lacL

TGAAACCGTTTTAA

-36

lacL-lacM

LSA1711-1710

LSA1792

scrA

TGTAAACGGTTGTA

-78

scrA-dexB-scrK

LSA1792-1790

LSA1830

pox2

TTGTAACGCTTACA

-70

  

The identification is based on the genome sequence of L. sakei strain 23K, and the consensus sequence TGWNANCG NTNWCA (W = A/T, N = A/T/G/C), confirmed in Gram-positive bacteria [39] was used in the search, allowing up to two mismatches (underlined) in the conserved positions except for the two center positions, highlighted in boldface.

a mismatch to consensus sequence is underlined

b position of cre in relation to the start codon

c suggested co-transcribed genes or genes organized in an operon

d cre in preceding gene encoding hypothetical protein

e gene not regulated in this study

Ribose catabolism and PKP

Confirming its major role in ribose transport and utilization in L. sakei, and in agreement with previous findings [16], our microarray data revealed a strong up-regulation (Table 1; log2 = 2.8-4.3) of rbsUDK. The genes encoding an additional putative carbohydrate kinase belonging to the ribokinase family and a putative phosphoribosyl isomerase, lsa0254 and lsa0255, respectively, previously suggested to be involved in catabolism of ribose in L. sakei [7], were induced in all the strains (Table 1). Recent CGH studies revealed that some L. sakei strains which were able to grow on ribose did not harbour the rbsK gene, whereas lsa0254 was present in all strains investigated [32]. This second ribokinase could therefore function as the main ribokinase in some L. sakei strains. The rbsK sequence could also differ considerably from that of 23K in these strains. The PKP showed an obvious induction with an up-regulation (2.2-3.2) of the xpk gene encoding the key enzyme xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xpk). This enzyme connects the upper part of the PKP to the lower part of glycolysis by converting xylulose-5-phosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl-phosphate. Acetyl-phosphate is then converted to acetate and ATP by acetate kinase (Ack). Supporting our results, previous proteomic analysis showed an over-expression of RbsK, RbsD and Xpk during growth on ribose [15, 16, 19]. The induction of ribose transport and phosphorylation, and increased phosphoketolase and acetate kinase activities were previously observed during growth on ribose [15]. Three genes encoding Ack are present in the 23K genome [7], as well as in MF1053 and LS 25 [32]. A preferential expression of different ack genes for the acetate kinase activity seem to exist. The ack2 gene was up-regulated in all the strains, while ack1 was up-regulated and ack3 down-regulated in 23K and LS 25 (Table 1). An illustration of the metabolic pathways with genes affected by the change of carbon source from glucose to ribose in L. sakei is shown in Figure 2.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1471-2180-11-145/MediaObjects/12866_2011_Article_1438_Fig2_HTML.jpg
Figure 2

Overview of the glycolysis, phosphoketolase pathway and nucleoside catabolic pathway affected by the change of carbon source from glucose to ribose in three L. sakei strains in this study. Genes which expression is up- or down-regulated are indicated with upward and downward pointing arrows, respectively, and are listed in Table 1. Black arrows indicate regulation in all three strains, and grey arrows indicate regulation in one or two strains. Schematic representation of CcpA-mediated CCR pathway is shown in the upper right corner. EII, enzyme II of the phosphotransferase system (PTS); EI, enzyme I, HPr, Histidine-containing protein; T, transport protein; P, phosphate; HPrK/P, HPr kinase/phosphatase; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; F6P; fructose-6-phosphate; FBP, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate; G3P, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; Gly3P, glycerol-3-phosphate; X5P, xylulose-5-phosphate; 1,3PG, 1,3-phosphoglycerate; 3PG, 3-phosphoglycerate; 2PG, 2-phosphoglycerate; PEP, phosphoenolepyruvate; glk, glucokinase; pgi, phosphoglucoisomerase; fbp, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; tpi, triose-phosphate isomerase; gap, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; pgk, phosphoglycerate kinase; eno, enolase; rpi, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase; rpe, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase.

As a consequence of the pentose-induced PKP, genes involved in PKP-metabolism of glucose, such as gntZ, gntK and zwf, were down-regulated (Table 1, Figure 2). The glycolytic pathway was clearly repressed, supporting previous findings [15, 19]. Among these genes were pfk (0.5-1.1) encoding 6-phosphofructokinase (Pfk), and fba (0.7-1.1) coding for fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, both acting at the initial steps of glycolysis. In addition, gpm3 encoding one of the five phosphoglycerate mutases present in the 23K genome, acting in the lower part of glycolysis, was also down-regulated (0.7-0.9). MF1053 down-regulated pyk (0.7) encoding pyruvate kinase (Pyk) that competes for PEP with the PTS (Figure 2). Its activity results in the production of pyruvate and ATP, and it is of major importance in glycolysis and energy production in the cell. MF1053 also showed a stronger down-regulation of pfk than the other strains (Table 1). Similar to several other lactobacilli, pfk is transcribed together with pyk [43, 44], and in many microorganisms the glycolytic flux depends on the activity of the two enzymes encoded from this operon [43, 45]. At the protein level, we previously observed both Pfk and Pyk expressed at a lower level for all the three strains [19], however this was not confirmed at the level of gene expression for 23K and LS 25. We could also not confirm the lower protein expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase previously seen in LS 25 [19]. The latter three enzymes are encoded from the central glycolytic operon (cggR-gap-pgk-tpi-eno) together with triose-phosphate isomerase and the putative central glycolytic genes regulator (CggR) [46]. Besides the cggR gene being down-regulated in MF1053 and LS 25, no change in gene expression was seen of these central glycolytic genes. Thus at the transcription level it is not obvious that the LS 25 strain down-regulate the glycolytic pathway more efficiently than the other strains, as previously suggested [19].

Interestingly, all the strains showed an induction (1.4-2.3) of mgsA encoding methylglyoxal synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate to methylglyoxal (Figure 2). The presence of this gene is uncommon among LAB and so far a unique feature among the sequenced lactobacilli. The methylglyoxal pathway represents an energetically unfavourable bypass to the glycolysis. In E. coli, this bypass occurs as a response to phosphate starvation or uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism, and enhanced ribose uptake was shown to lead to the accumulation of methylglyoxal [47, 48]. As suggested by Chaillou et al. [7], such flexibility in the glycolytic process in L. sakei may reflect the requirement to deal with glucose starvation or to modulate carbon flux during co-metabolism of alternative carbon sources. Breakdown of methylglyoxal is important as it is toxic to the cells [49]. An induction of the lsa1158 gene contiguous with mgsA was seen for 23K and MF1053. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein, also suggested as a putative oxidoreductase, which may reduce methylglyoxal to lactaldehyde [7]. However, no induction of the adhE (lsa0379) gene encoding an iron-containing aldehyde dehydrogenase suggested to further reduce lactaldehyde to L-lactate [7] was seen. By CGH [32]lsa1158 and adhE were present in all the L. sakei strains investigated, whereas mgsA was lacking in some strains, indicating that the MgsA function is not vital.

Pyruvate metabolism

Pyruvate is important in both glycolysis and PKP. It can be converted into lactate by the NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase, which regenerates NAD+ and maintains the redox balance. This enzyme is encoded by the ldhL gene which was down-regulated (0.7-1.4) in all three strains, in accordance with previous findings [50], and the down-regulation was strongest for the LS 25 strain. At the protein level, only LS 25 showed a lower expression of this enzyme during growth on ribose [19]. Genes responsible for alternative fates of pyruvate (Figure 2) were highly induced in all the strains, however with some interesting strain variation (Table 1). The shift in pyruvate metabolism can benefit the bacteria by generating ATP, or by gaining NAD+ for maintaining the redox balance and may lead to various end products in addition to lactate [51].

In all the strains, a strongly up-regulated (2.1-3.0) pox1 gene was observed, and in 23K an up-regulated pox2 (0.7), encoding pyruvate oxidases which under aerobic conditions convert pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and CO2 as side products. Accumulation of peroxide ultimately leads to aerobic growth arrest [52]. H2O2 belongs to a group of compounds known as reactive oxygen species and reacts readily with metal ions to yield hydroxyl radicals that damage DNA, proteins and membranes [53]. Remarkable differences in redox activities exist among Lactobacillus species and L. sakei is among those extensively well equipped to cope with changing oxygen conditions, as well as dealing effectively with toxic oxygen byproducts [7]. 23K up-regulated npr (1.0) encoding NADH peroxidase which decomposes low concentrations of H2O2 to H2O and O2, and all the strains up-regulated the sodA gene (1.7-3.4) encoding a superoxide dismutase which produces hydrogen peroxide from superoxide (O2-). Various oxidoreductases showed an up-regulation in all the strains (Table 1), indicating the need for the bacterium to maintain its redox balance.

The pdhABCD gene cluster encoding components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDC) which transforms pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and CO2 were among the strongly up-regulated (2.1-3.7) genes. The eutD gene encoding a phosphate acetyltransferase which further forms acetyl-phosphate from acetyl-CoA was also induced (1.0-2.0). Pyruvate can be transformed to acetolactate by acetolactate synthase and further to acetoin by acetolactate decarboxylase, before 2,3-butanediol may be formed by an acetoin recuctase (Figure 2). While the budC gene encoding the acetoin reductase showed a strong up-regulation in all three strains, the als-aldB operon was only strongly up-regulated in LS 25 (1.9). Pyruvate formate lyase produces acetyl-CoA and formate from pyruvate. Only in 23K, the pflAB genes encoding formate C-acetyltransferase and its activating enzyme involved in formate formation were strongly up-regulated (4.0 and 1.7, respectively). This strain was the only one to strongly induce L-lactate oxidase encoding genes which are responsible for conversion of lactate to acetate when oxygen is present (Table 1). In 23K and LS 25, the ppdK gene coding for the pyruvate phosphate dikinase involved in regenerating PEP, was induced, as was also lsa0444 encoding a putative malate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the conversion of malate into oxaloacetate using NAD+ and vice versa (Table 1).

During growth on ribose, L. sakei was shown to require thiamine (vitamine B1) [15]. The E1 component subunit α of the PDC, as well as Pox and Xpk, require thiamine pyrophosphate, the active form of thiamine, as a coenzyme [54]. This could explain the induction of the thiMDE operon and lsa0055 in LS 25, as well as lsa0980 in 23K, encoding enzymes involved in thiamine uptake and biosynthesis (Table 1). The up-regulation of lsa1664 (1.1-1.6) encoding a putative dihydrofolate reductase involved in biosynthesis of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in all the strains could indicate a requirement for flavin nucleotides as enzyme cofactors. Riboflavin is the precursor for flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox cofactors in flavoproteins, and the E3 component of PDC as well as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded from the up-regulated glpD, are among enzymes requiring FAD. Another cofactor which seems to be important during growth on ribose is lipoate, essential of the E2 component of the PDC. An up-regulation of lplA (1.0 - 1.6) encoding lipoate-protein ligase, which facilitates attachment of the lipoyl moiety to metabolic enzyme complexes, was seen in all the strains, allowing the bacterium to scavenge extracellular lipoate [55, 56].

Nucleoside catabolism

The L. sakei genome contains a multiplicity of catabolic genes involved in exogenous nucleoside salvage pathways, and the bacterium has been shown to catabolize inosine and adenosine for energy [7]. Three iunH genes are present in the 23K genome, which encode inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolases responsible for conversion of inosine to ribose and purine base. The iunH1 gene was up-regulated in all the strains when grown on ribose (1.8-2.6), as was also the iunH2 gene in 23K (1.2). The deoC gene encodes a deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase, and is located in an operon structure preceding the genes deoB, deoD, lsa0798, lsa0799, deoR and pdp which encode phosphopentomutase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, pyrimidine-specific nucleoside symporter, a putative purine transport protein, the deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator (DeoR), and a pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase, respectively. The complete operon was induced in all the strains, except for pdp only induced in 23K (Table 1). The phosphorylases catalyze cleavage of ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleosides to the free base pluss ribose-1-phosphate or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The bases are further utilized in nucleotide synthesis or as nitrogen sources. The pentomutase converts ribose-1-phosphate or deoxyribose-1-phosphate to ribose-5-phosphate or deoxyribose-5-phosphate, respectively, which can be cleaved by the aldolase to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetaldehyde. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate enters the glycolysis, while a putative iron containing alcohol dehydrogenase, encoded by lsa0258 up-regulated in all the strains (0.5-1.6), could further reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol (Figure 2). The obvious induced nucleoside catabolism at the level of gene expression was not seen by proteomic analysis [19].

Genes involved in glycerol/glycerolipid/fatty acid metabolism

During growth on ribose, a strong induction of the glpKDF operon encoding glycerol kinase (GlpK), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD), and glycerol uptake facilitator protein was observed (Table 1), which is in correlation with the over-expression of GlpD and GlpK seen by proteomic analysis [19]. GlpD is FADH2 linked and converts glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone-phosphate. An over-expression of GlpD was also reported when L. sakei was exposed to low temperature [57]. A glpD mutant showed enhanced survival at low temperature, and it was suggested that this was a result of the glycerol metabolism being redirected into phosphatidic acid synthesis which leads to membrane phospholipid biosynthesis [57]. Nevertheless, a down-regulation was observed of the lsa1493 gene (0.6-0.9) encoding a putative diacylglycerol kinase involved in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid, and of cfa (1.3-1.4) encoding cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase directly linked to modifications in the bacterial membrane fatty acid composition that reduce membrane fluidity and helps cells adapt to their environment [58]. Interestingly, LS 25 up-regulated several genes (LSA0812-0823), including accD and accA encoding the α- and ß-subunits of the multi-subunit acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Table 1). This is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, an essential intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. In B. subtilis, the malonyl-CoA relieves repression of the fab genes [59]. We observed that also acpP, fabZ1, fabH, fabD and fabI (Table 1) encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were induced in LS 25. The altered flux to malonyl-CoA may be a result of the decreased glycolytic rate. MF1053, on the other hand, showed a down-regulation of several genes in the same gene cluster. A higher level of acetate is produced when the bacterium utilizes ribose, and acetate lowers the pH and has a higher antimicrobial effect than lactate. Changes in the phospholipid composition could be a response to changes in intracellular pH. Protons need to be expelled at a higher rate when the pH drops. The LS 25 strain which showed faster growth rates than the other strains [9], was the only strain to up-regulate the F0F1 ATP synthase (Table 1), which at the expense of ATP expels protons during low pH.

Regulation mechanisms

Little is known about the regulation of catabolic pathways in L. sakei. Starting from ribose uptake, the rbs operon may be both relieved from repression and ribose induced. Presumably, a dual regulation of this operon by two opposite mechanisms, substrate induction by ribose and CCR by glucose may occur in L. sakei. The ccpA gene was not regulated, consistent with this gene commonly showing constitutive expression in lactobacilli [42, 60]. The local repressor RbsR is homologous with CcpA, both belonging to the same LacI/GalR family of transcriptional regulators. RbsR was proposed to bind a cre-like consensus sequence located close to a putative CcpA cre site, both preceding rbsU [28]. RbsR in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was shown to bind a cre-like sequence, and using microarrays, the transcription of no other genes but the rbs operon was affected positively in an rbsR deletion mutant. It was concluded that RbsR influences the expression of only the rbs operon [61]. Similarily, in the L. sakei sequence, no other candidate members of RbsR regulation could be found [28]. However, experiments are needed to confirm RbsR binding in

L. sakei. In Bacillus subtilis, RbsR represent a novel interaction partner of P-Ser-HPr in a similar fashion to CcpA [62]. The P-Ser-HPr interaction is possible also in L. sakei as the bacterium exhibits HPr-kinase/phosphatase activity.

A putative cre site is present in the promoter of lsa0254 encoding the second ribokinase (Table 2), and this gene is preceeded by the opposite oriented gene lsa0253 encoding a transcriptional regulator with a sugar binding domain which belongs to the GntR family. This family of transcriptional regulators, as well as the LacI family which RbsR and CcpA belong to, are among the families to which regulators involved in carbohydrate uptake or metabolism usually belong [63]. The GntR-type regulator could possibly be involved in regulating the expression of the second ribokinase, or of the inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase encoding iunH1 gene which is located further upstream of lsa0254. C. glutamicum possesses an operon encoding a ribokinase, a uridine transporter, and a uridine-preferring nucleoside hydrolase which is co-controlled by a local repressor together with the RbsR repressor of the rbs operon [60, 61, 64]. It is possible that such co-control could exist also in L. sakei. Ribose as well as nucleosides are products of the degradation of organic materials such as DNA, RNA and ATP. The simultaneous expression of the rbs and deo operons as well as the other genes involved in ribose and nucleoside catabolism (Figure 2) allows the bacterium to access the different substrates simultaneously and use both ribose as well as nucleosides as carbon and energy source. DeoR shows 51% identity to the B. subtilis DeoR repressor protein [65, 66]. Genes encoding deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase, nucleoside uptake protein and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase in B. subtilis are organized in a dra-nupC-pdp operon followed by deoR, and ribose was shown to release DeoR from DNA binding and thus repression of the operon genes are alleviated [6567]. The B. subtilis pentomutase and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase are encoded from a drm-pupG operon which is not negatively regulated by DeoR, though both operons are subject to CcpA mediated CCR [65, 66, 68]. As a cre site is found preceding the L. sakei deoC (Table 2), the operon could be regulated by CcpA as well. It is interesting that deoR is the only strongly induced transcriptional regulator gene in all three strains, and the encoded regulator has sigma (σ) factor activity. We can only speculate whether it could function as activator of transcription on some of the regulated genes in this study.

Expression of the Xpk encoding gene of Lactobacillus pentosus was reported to be induced by sugars fermented through the PKP and repressed by glucose mediated by CcpA [69]. Indeed, the cre site overlapping ATG start codon of L. sakei xpk (Table 2) indicates relief of CcpA-mediated CCR during growth on ribose. Also for several genes involved in alternative fates of pyruvate, putative cre sites were present (Table 2).

Several genes and operons involved in transport and metabolism of various carbohydrates such as mannose, galactose, fructose, lactose, cellobiose, N-acetylglucosamine, including putative sugar kinases and PTSs, were induced during growth on ribose (Table 1), and as shown in Table 2, putative cre sites are located in the promoter region of many of these up-regulated genes and operons. 23K showed an up-regulation of genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway, and 23K and LS 25 showed an up-regulated threonine deaminase (Table 1). The arcA and tdcB both have putative cre sites in their promoter regions (Table 2). Thus ribose seems to induce a global regulation of carbon metabolism in L. sakei.

A putative cre site precedes the glp operon (Table 2), suggesting regulation mediated by CcpA. However, regulation of the L. sakei GlpK may also occur by an inducer exclusion-based CcpA-independent CCR mechanism as described in enterococci and B. subtilis [70, 71], and as previously suggested by Stentz et al. [15]. By this mechanism, glycerol metabolism is regulated by PEP-dependent, EI- and HPr-catalyzed phosphorylation of GlpK in response to the presence or absence of a PTS substrate. In the absence of a PTS sugar, GlpK is phosphorylated by P-His-HPr at a conserved histidyl residue, forming the active P-GlpK form, whereas during growth on a PTS sugar, phosphoryl transfer flux through the PTS is high, concentration of P-His-HPr is low, and GlpK is present in a less active dephospho form [20, 70, 71]. This conserved histidyl residue (His232) is present in L. sakei GlpK [20], and Stentz et al. [15] reported that whereas L. sakei can grow poorly on glycerol, this growth was abolished in ptsI mutants.

Mannose-PTS

As mentioned in the introduction, the PTS plays a central role, in both the uptake of a number of carbohydrates and regulatory mechanisms [2022]. Encoding the general components, ptsH showed an up-regulation in MF1053 and LS 25 (1.2 and 0.9, respectively), while all the strains up-regulated ptsI (0.8-1.7). The manLMN operon encoding the EIIman complex was surprisingly strongly up-regulated during growth on ribose in all the strains (Table 1). By proteomic analysis, no regulation of the PTS enzymes was seen [19]. The expression of HPr and EI in L. sakei during growth on glucose or ribose was previously suggested to be constitutive [14], and in other lactobacilli, the EIIman complex was reported to be consistently highly expressed, regardless of carbohydrate source [7274]. Notably, PEP-dependent phosphorylation of PTS sugars has been detected in ribose-grown cells, indicating that the EIIman complex is active, and since no transport and phosphorylation via EIIman occurs, the complex is phosphorylated, while it is unphosphorylated in the presence of the substrates of the EIIman complex [8, 73]. The stimulating effect exerted by small amounts of glucose on ribose uptake in L. sakei, which has also been reported in other lactobacilli [74, 75], was suggested to be caused by dephosphorylation of the PTS proteins in the presence of glucose, as a ptsI mutant lacking EI, as well as P-His-HPr, was shown to enhance ribose uptake [15, 16, 76]. Stentz et al. [15] observed that a L. sakei mutant (strain RV52) resistant to 2 deoxy-D-glucose, a glucose toxic analog transported by EIIman, and thus assumed to be affected in the EIIman, did not show the same enhanced uptake [15]. It was concluded that EIIman is not involved in the PTS-mediated regulation of ribose metabolism in L. sakei. The mutation was though not reported verified by sequencing [15], and other mutations could be responsible for the observed phenotype. The L. sakei EIIABman, EIICman and EIIDman show 72, 81, and 82% identity, respectively, with the same enzymes in L. casei, in which mutations rendering the EIIman complex inactive were shown to derepress rbs genes, resulting in a loss of the preferential use of glucose over ribose [75]. Furthermore, in L. pentosus, EIIman was shown to provide a strong signal to the CcpA-dependent repression pathway [73]. The hprK gene encoding HPrK/P which controls the phosphorylation state of HPr was strongly up-regulated (1.2-2.0) in all three strains. HPrK/P dephosphorylates P-Ser-HPr when the concentration of glycolytic intermediates drop, which is likely the situation during growth on ribose [20, 22, 24].

Numerous genes encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown function were also found to be differentially expressed (Table 1), as well as several other genes belonging to various functional categories. For most of these, their direct connection with ribose metabolism is unknown, and is likely an indirect effect.

Conclusions

The ability to ferment meat and fish is related to the capacity of the bacterium to rapidly take up the available carbohydrates and other components for growth. The importance of this process, especially to the meat industry, stimulates research aimed at understanding the mechanisms for transport and metabolism of these compounds, with the ultimate goal to be able to select improved strains. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses with DNA microarrays efficiently allowed the identification of genes differentially expressed between growth on the two carbohydrates which L. sakei can utilize from these substrates. Moreover, microarrays were a powerful tool to increase the understanding of the bacterium's primary metabolism and revealed a global regulatory mechanism. In summary, the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery is highly regulated at the transcription level, and it is closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a fine tuning of the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources.

Abbreviations

PKP: 

phosphoketolase pathway

PEP: 

phosphoenolpyruvate

PTS: 

PEP-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system

CCR: 

carbon catabolite repression

cre

catabolite responsive element

RbsK: 

ribokinase

RbsD: 

D-Ribose pyranase

Xpk: 

xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase

Ack: 

Acetate kinase, Pfk: 6-phosphofructokinase

Pyk: 

pyruvate kinase

PDC: 

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

GlpD: 

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GlpK: 

glycerol kinase

EII: 

enzyme II

EI: 

enzyme I

HPr: 

histidine protein

HPrK/P: 

HPr kinase/phosphatase

DeoR: 

deoxyribonucleoside synthesis operon transcriptional regulator.

Declarations

Acknowledgements and funding

This work was financially supported by Grant 159058/I10 from the Norwegian Research Council. The authors would like to thank Monique Zagorec for helpful suggestions and critically reading the manuscript. We also thank Margrete Solheim, Mari Christine Brekke, and Signe Marie Drømtorp for their assistance during the experiments, and Hallgeir Bergum, the Norwegian Microarray Consortium (NMC), for printing the microarray slides.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Nofima Mat AS,, orwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research
(2)
Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences

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